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CD: Crohn\'s disease?(R): Right?/d: Per day?1/ SCr: Inverse of serum creatinine?1/2NS: Half-strength normal saline?3D CRT: Three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy?3TC: Lamivudine?5-ASA: 5-aminosalicylic acid?5-FCFLUCYTOSINE : ?5-FU: 5-fluorouracil?5-FU: 5-Fluorouracil?5-FU/LV: 5-fluorouracil and leucovorin?5-HT: 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin)?5-PAM: Pralidoxime?A & E: Accident and emergency?A & O: Alert and oriented?A & P: Anterior and posterior?A & P: Auscultation and percussion?A & W: Alive and well?A&E: Accident and emergency?a.d.: Right ear?a.m. : Morning?a.m.: Before noon?a.s.: Left ear?a.u. : Each ear?A/G: Albumin/globulin ratio?AA: Alcoholics Anonymous?AA: Anaplastic astrocytoma?aa: Of each?AAA: Abdominal aortic aneurysm?AAAAA: Aphasia, agnosia, apraxia, agraphia, and alex?Ab: Abortion?Ab: antibody?ABC: Airway, breathing, circulation?ABC: ATP-binding cassette?abd: Abdomen?abd: abdominal?abd: abduction?ABE: Acute bacterial endocarditis?ABG: Arterial blood gas?ABS: Acute Bacterial Sinusitis?ABT378: Lopinavir?ABVD: Adriamycin, bleomycin, vincristine, and dacarbazine?ac: Before meals?AC: Abdominal circumference?AC: Adriamycin [doxorubicin] plus cyclophosphamide?AC: anthracycline and cyclophosphamide?ACA: Anterior cerebral artery?ACAT: Acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase?ACBS: Aortocoronary bypass surgery?ACE: Angiotensin-converting enzyme?Ach: Acetylcholine?Acid phos.: Acid phosphatase?ACL: Anterior Cruciate Ligament?ACLS: Advanced Cardiac Life?ACS: Acute Coronary Syndrome?ACT: Artemisinin-based combination therapy?ACTH: Adrenocorticotropic hormone?AD: Alzheimer disease?AD: Autosomal dominant?ad: Up to?ad lib: As much as desired?ADA: Adenosine deaminase?ADC: AIDS dementia complex?ADCC: Antibody-depent cellular cytotoxicity?ADD: Attention deficit disorder?ADEPT: Adalimumab Effectiveness in Psoriatic Arthritis Trail?ADH: Antidiuretic hormone?ADH: Adjusted-dose subcutaneous heparin?ADH: Antidiuretic hormone (vasopressin)?ADHD: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder?ADHF: Acute decompensate heart failure?ADL: Activities of daily living?ADME: Absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion?ADP: Adenosine diphosphate?ADPW: Adjusted-dose perioperative warfarin?ADR: Adverse drug reaction?ADT : Alternate-day therapy?ADU: Acute duodenal ulcer?AEC: Atomic Energy Commission?AED: Antiepileptic drug?AED: Automated external defibrillator?AEs: Adverse Events?AEs: Adverse experiences?AF: Atrial fibrillation?AFB: Acid-fast bacillus?aFGF: Acidic fibroblast growth factors?AFI: Amniotic fluid index?Afib: Atrial Fibrillation?AFP: Alpha fetoprotein?AG: Anion Gap?Ag: antigen?AGL: Acute granulocytic leukaemia?AGN: Acute glomerulonephritis?AGUS: Atypical glandular cells of undetermined significance?aGVHD: acute graft-versus-host disease?aGVHDAI: acute GVHD activity Index?AHA: Autoimmune haemolytic amaemia?AHD: Autoimmune harmolytic disease?AI: Adequate intake?AICD: Automated Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator?AIDS: Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome?AIMS: Abnormal involuntary movement scale?AIMS: Alberta Infant Motor Scale?AIP: Acute interstitial pneumonitis?AIPs: Aldosterone-induced proteins?AIS: Adenocarcinoma in situ?AK: Above knee?AL: amyloidosis?ALA: Aminolaevulinic acid?ALD: Alcoholic liver disease?ALG: Antilymphocyte globulin?ALL: Acute lymphoblastic leukemia?ALLHAT: Antihypertensive Lipid Lowering Heart Attack Trail?ALT: Alanine aminotransferase?alt.: Alternate?ALTE: Apparent Life-Threatening Event?AMA: Against medical advice?AMD: Age-related macular degeneration?AMI: Acute Myocardial Infraction?AML: Acute myelogenous leukemia?AML: Acute myeloid leukemia?AMP: Adenosine monophosphate?amp: ampule?AMS: Acute Mountain Sickness?AN: Acanthosis nigricans?ANA: Antinuclear antibody?ANC: Absolute neutrophil count?ANCA: Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody?ANCAs: Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies?ANF: Antinuclear factor?ANP: Atrial natriuretic peptide?ANP: Arterial natriuretic peptide?ante: before?Anti-HAV: Antibody to hepatitis A?Anti-HCV: Antibodies to HCV?AOB: Alcohol on breath?AODM: Adult-onset diabetes mellitus?AOM: Acute otitis media?AP: Alkaline phosphatase?AP: Angina pectoris?AP: antepartum?AP: Anterior pituitary?AP: Anterioposterior?AP: Aortic pressure?AP: Apical pulse?AP: appendectomy?AP: Artificial pneumothorax?APA: Anti-phospholipid (syndrome)?APB: Atrial premature beat?APC: Activated protein C?APC: Adenomatous polyposis coli?APC: Atrial premature contraction?APE: Acute psychiatric emergency?APECED: Autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy?Apo: Apolipoprotein?APP: Amyloid precursor protein?applic.: to be applied?APRICOT : AIDS Pegasys Ribavirin International CO-infection Trial?APSAC: Anisolyated plasminogen streptokinase activator complex?APT: Alum-precipitated toxoid?aPTT: Activated partial thromboplastin time?APTT: Activated partial thromboplastin time?aq.: water?AR: Androgen Receptor?AR: Aortic regurgitation?AR: Apical/radial (pulse)?AR: Autosomal recessive?AR: Average Requirment?ARB: Angiotensin receptor blocker?ARC: AIDS-related complex?ARDS: Acute respiratory distress syndrome?ARF: Acute renal failure?AROM: Artificial rupture of membrane?AS: Aortic stenosis?AS: Ankylosing spondylitis?AS: arteriosclerosis?ASA: Acetylsalicylic acid?ASAP: As Soon As Possible?AS-attack: Adam-Strokes attack?ASB: Asymptomatic bacteriuria?ASCA: Anti-saccharomyces cerevisiae antibody?ASC-H: Atypical squamous cells, cannot exclude HSIL?ASCT: Autologous stem cell transplantation?ASCUS: Atypical squamous cells of unknown significance?ASCVD: Arteriosclerotic cardiovascular disease?ASD: Atrial septal defect?ASHD: Arteriosclerotic heart disease?ASLO titre: Antistreptolysin-O titre?ASM: Aggressive system mastocytosis?ASMA: Anti-Smooth Muscle Antibody?ASO: Antistreptolysin?ASOT: Antistreptolysin O titer?AST: Aspartate aminotransferase?AT III: Antithrombine III?ATBC: Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta carotene?ATFL: Anterior Talo-Fibular Ligament?ATG: Antithymocyte globulin?ATL: Adult T cell lymphoma?ATL: Adult T cell leukemia?ATLS: Advanced Trauma Life Support?ATN: Acute tubular necrosis?ATP: Adenosine triphosphate?AUC : Area under the curve?aurist.: Ear drops?AutoPap: Computer-assisted cytology interpretation system?AV: Aortic valve?AV: Atrioventricular?A-V: Arteriovenous?AVERT: Atorvastatin Versus Revascularization treatment?AVID: ?AVM: Arteriovenous Malformation?AVNRT: AV nodal reentry tachycardia?AVP: Arginine vasopressin?AVR: Aortic valve replacement?AVR: Augmented V lead, right arm (ECG)?AVRT: ?AVS: Arteriovenous shunt?AWS: Alcohol withdrawal syndrome?AXR: Abdominal X ray?AZF: Azoospermia factor genes?AZT: Azidothymidine (zidovudine)?B & O: Belladonna and opium?B Bx.: Breast biopsy?b. : twice?b.d. : Twice daily?b.i.d. : Twice a day?BaE: Barium enema?BAL: Bronchoalveolar lavage?BAL: Dimercaprol?BASDAI: Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index?BBB: Bundle branch block?BBB: Blood-brain barrier?BBBB: Bilateral bundle branch block (ECG)?BCAA: Branched-chain amino acid?BCAR: Biopsy-confirmed acute rejection?BCG: Bacillus Calmette-Guerin ?BCPT: Breast Cancer Prevention Trail?BDI: Beck Depression Inventory?BDNF: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor?BDZ: Benzodiazepine(s)?BE : Barium enema; base excess?BEE: Basal energy expenditure?bFGF: basic fibroblast growth factors?BG: Blood glucose?BHS: Beta-hemolytic streptococci?BIA: Bioelectrical impedence analysis?Bili: Bilirubin?BiPAP: Bilevel Positive Airway Pressure?BJ protein: Bence-Jones protein?BKA: Below knee amputation?BM: basal metabolism?BM: Bowel movement?BMD: Bone mineral density?BMI: Body mass index?BMP: Basic metabolic panel?BMR: Basal metabolic rate?BMT: Bone marrow transplant?BNO: Bowels not open?BNP: B-type Natriuretic Peptide?BOOP: Bronchiolitis obliterans with organizing pneumonia also referred to as cryptogenic organizing pneumonia?BOR: Bowels open regularly?BP: Blood pressure?BP: Bullous Pemphigoid?BP: bypass?BPD: Borderline psychiatric disorder?BPD: Bronchopulmonary dysplasia?BPH: Benign prostatic hypertrophy?BPM: Beats per minute?BPP: Biophysical profiling?BPRS: Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale?BPV: Benign Paroxysmal Vertigo?BRAT: Banana, rice, applesauce, toast?BRAVE: Breast cancer-Anemia and the Value of Erythropoietin?BRCA1/2: Breast cancer 1 and 2 genes?BRP: Bathroom privileges?BS: Bowel sounds?BS: Blood sugar?BS: Breath sounds?BSA: Body surface area?BSE: Bovine spongiform encephalopathy?BSO: Bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy?BSS: Balanced Salt Solution?BUN: Blood urea nitrogen?BV: Bacterial vaginosis?BW: Body water?BW: Body weight?Bx.: Biopsy?C: Celsius?C: Complement?ĉ: With?C & A: Clinitest and acetest?C & P: Cystoscopy and pyelogram?C & S: Culture and sensitive?C & S: Culture and sensitivity?c.: With?c. : With?C.E.R.A.: Continuous Erythripoietin Receptor Activator?C/O: Complains of?C/O: Complains of?C1, C2, ….: Cervical vertebrae 1,2, …?Ca: Calcium?Ca: Cancer?Ca: Carcinoma?Ca: Cardiac arrest?Ca: Coronary artery?CA-125: A tumor marker for ovarian cancer?CAB: Cellulose acetate butyrate?CABG: Coronary artery bypass graft?CACI: Computer-Assisted Continuous Infusion?CAD: Coronary artery disease?CAG: ?CAH: Chronic active hepatitis?CAH: Congenital adrenal hyperplasia?calid. : Warm?CALM: Café aulait macules?cANCA: Cytoplasmic pattern of ANCA?CAP: Community-acquired pneumonia?cap.: Capsule?CAPD: Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis?Caps: Capsules?CAPS: Cryopyrin-Associated Periodic Syndromes disorders?CAPTIA Syph G: ?CAPTIA Syph M: ?CAST: Cardiac arrhythmia suppression trials?CAT: Computerized axial tomography?Cataplasm.: Poultice?CAV: Cyclophosphomide, doxorubicin and vincristine?CAVH: Continuous arteriovenous haemofiltration?CBA: Competitive binding assay?CBC: Complete blood count?CBT : Cognitive behavioral therapy?CBZ: Carbamazepine?CBZ-E: Carbamazepine-epoxide?CC: Chief complaint?CCB: Calcium channel blocker?CCD: Cortical collecting duct?CCF: Congestive cardiac failure?CCHB: Congenital Compete Heart Block?CCK: Cholecystokinin?CCr: Creatinine clearance?CCU: Coronary care unit?CD: Cluster of differentiation?CDA: Chlorproguanil hydrochloride dapsone-artesunate?CDAD: Difficile-associated diarrhea?CDC: Centers for Disease Control?CDCA: Chenodeoxycholic acid; chenodiol?CDI: Central diabetes insipidus?cDNA : Complementary DNA?CEA: Carcinoembryonic antigen?CETP: Cholesteryl ester transfer protein?CF: Cardiac failure?CF: Complement fixation?CF: Cystic fibrosis?CFC: Chlorofluorocarbon?CFDS: Color flow Doppler sonography?CFE: Capital femoral epiphysis?CFL: Calcaneo-Fibular Ligament?CFS: chronic fatigue syndrome?CFT: Complement fixation test?CFTR: Cystic fibrosis transmembrance conductance regulator protein?CG: Chorionic gonadotropin?CGI: Clinical Global Impression?CGL: Chronic granulocytic leukaemia?cGMP: Cyclic 3\',5\'-guanosine monophosphate?CGN: Chronic glomerulonephritis?CHB: Complete heart block?CHD: Coronary heart disease?CHF: Congestive heart failure?CHO: Carbohydrate?Chol: Cholesterol?CHOP: Cyclophosphamide, hydroxydaunorubicin, Oncovin, prednisolone?CHR: Corticotrophin-releasing hormone?CI: Cardiac index?CI: Cerebral infarction?CI: confidence interval?cIAI: Complicated intra-abdominal infections?cib. : food?CIN: Cervical Intraepithelial neoplasia?CIVA: Centralized intravenous additive?CJD: Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease?CK: Creatine kinase?CKD: Chronic kidney disease?cK-MB: ?Cl: Chloride?CL: clubbing?CLARITY: Clopidogrel as Adjunctive Reperfusion Therapy?CLCN: Cl¯ channel?ClCr: Creatinine clearance?CLD: Chronic liver disease?CLD: Chronic lung disease?CLIP: Clip Closure In Percutaneous?CLL: Chronic lymphocytic leukemia?CM: Cardiomyopathy?CM: Cutaneous mastocytosis?Cmax: Maximum serum concentration?CMF: Cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and fluorouracil?CML: Chronic myelogenous leukemia?CMML: Chronic myelomonocytic leukemia?CMP: Complete metabolic panel?CMV: Cytomegalovirus?CMV: Controlled mechanical ventilation?CMVIG: ?CN: Cranial Nerve?CNS: Central nervous system?CO: Cardiac output?co. : compound?CoA: Coenzyme A?COAD: Chronic obstructive airways disease?COD: Cause of death?COG: Closed angle glaucoma?COLD: Chronic obstructive lung disease?collun.: nosewash?collut. : mouthwash?collyr.: Eye lotion?COMMIT: Clopidogrel and Metoprolol in Myocardial Infarction Trial?comp. : Compound?COMT : Catecholamine-O-methyl-transferase inhibitors?ConA: Concanavalin A?conc. : Concentrated?COP: Capillary osmotic pressure?COPD: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease?COX: Cyclo-oxygenase?COX-1: Cyclooxygenase-1?COX-2: Cyclooxygenase-2?CP: Cor pulmonale?CP: Creatine phosphate?CPA: Cardiopulmonary arrest?CPA: Cerebellar pontine angle?CPAP: Continuous positive airway pressure?CPB: Cardiopulmonary bypass?CPD: Continuous peritoneal dialysis?CPE: Cytopathic effect?CPK: Creatine phosphokinase?CPM: Central Pontine Myelinolysis?CPN: Chronic pyelonephritis?CPPD: Calcium Pyrophosphate Dihydrate?CPPV: Continuous positive pressure ventilation?CPR: Cardiopulmonary resuscitation?CPZ: chlorpromazine?CR: cardiorespiratory?CR: Clot retraction?CR: Colon reserction?CR: Complete response?CR: Conditional reflex?Cr: Creatinine?CR: Crown-rump?CRAG: ?CRAO: Central Retinal Artery Occlusion?CRD: Chronic renal disease?CREB: Cyclic AMP-response-element binding protein?crem.: Cream?CREST: ?CRF: Chronic renal failure?CRF: Corticotrophin-releasing factor?CRH: Corticortropin-releasing hormone?CRP: C-reactive protein?CRVO: Central Retinal Vein Occlusion?CsA: Combination with cyclosporine?CSD: Cat-Scratch Disease?CSE: Combined spinal-epidural technique?CSE: Convulsive Status Epilepticus?CSF: Colony Stimulating Factor?CSF: Cerebrospinal fluid?CSF-VDRL: ?CSH: Chronic subdural haematoma?CSM: Carotid sinus massage?CSM: Cerebrospinal meningitis?CSM: Committee on safety of Medicines?CSP: Carotid sinus pressure?CSR: Cheyne-Stokes respiration?CSR: Correct sedimentation rate?CSS: Central sterile supply?CSS: ?cSSSI: Complicated skin and skin structure infections?CST: Contraction stress testing?CSU: Catheter specimen of urine?CT: Calcitonin?CT: Circulation time?CT: Clotting time?CT: Computed tomography, Computerized tomography?CT: Coombs\' test?CT: Coronary thrombosis?CT scan: Computed tomography?CTCL: Cutaneous T cell lymphomas?CTL: Cytotoxic T cell lymphocytes?CTZ: Chemoreceptor trigger zone?CUA: Cost utility analysis?CUG: cystourethrogram?CV: Cardiovascular?CV: Central venous?CV: Cerebrovascular?CV: Contingent valuation?CVA: Cerebrovascular accident?CVA: Costovertebral angle?CVC: Cardiovascular center?CVD: Cardiovascular disease?CVP: Central venous pressure?CVS: Chorionic villus sampling?CVVH: Continuous venovenous haemofiltration?Cx: Cervix?Cx: Cervical?CXR: Chest x-ray?d: Daily?d: Dead?d: Deceased?d : Deuteron (nuclear pharmacy)?D & C: Dilatation and curettage?D & E: Dilation and evacuation?D & V: Diarrhea and vomiting?D value: Decimal reduction time?D&V: Diarrhea and vomiting?D.C.: Discontinue?d.t.d. : Give of such doses?D/S: Dextrose and saline?D1: Dopamine-1 receptor?D2: Dopamine-2 receptor?d4T: Stavudine?D50: 50% Dextrose Solution?D5W: Dextrose 5% in water?D5W: Dextrose 5%?DA: Dopamine?DBI: Diazepam-binding inhibitor?DBP: Diastolic blood pressure?DC: Direct Current?DC (D/C): Discontinue?DCIS: Ductal carcinoma in situ?DCM: Diffuse cutaneous mastocytosis?DD: Differential diagnosis?DDAVP: Vasopressin?DDAVP: ?ddC: Zalcitabine (Dideoxynucleoside drugs zalcitabine)?DDD: Degenerative Disk Disease?DDH: Developmental dysplasia of hip?ddI: Didanosine?DDx.: Differential diagnosis?DES: Diethylstilbestrol?dest. : Distilled?DETAIL: Diabetics Exposed to Telmisartan and Enalapril?DEV: Duck embryo vaccine?DEXA: Dual-energy photo X-ray absorptiometry?DFA: Direct immunofluorescent antibody?DFP: Diisopropyl fluorophosphates?DFS: Disease-free survival?DFSP: Dematofibrosarcoma protuberans?DGI: Disseminated Gonococcal Infection?DH: Dermatitis Herpetiformis?DH: Drug history?DHEA: Dehydroepiandrosterone?DHEAS: Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate?DHFR: Dihyrofolate reductase?DHT: Dihyrotestosterone?DHT: Dihydrotachysterol?DI: Diabetes Insipidus?DIC: Disseminated intravascular coagulation?Diff: Differential blood count?Dig: Digoxin (be careful with this abbreviation)?dil. : Dilute?DIP: Distal interphalangeal joint?DIP: Desquamative interstitial pneumonia?disc. : Discontinue?DISH: Diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis?DISIDA: Diisopropyliminodiacetic acid?DIT: diiodotyrosine?div. : Divide?DIVA: Dosing IntraVenous Administration?DIVA: Dosing IntraVenous Administration?DJD: Degenerative joint disease?DKA: Diabetic ketoacidosis?dL: Deciliter?DL: Diffusing capacity?DLBCL: Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma?DLE: Discoid lupus erythematosus?DLE: Disseminated lupus erythematosus?DM: Diabetes mellitus?DM: Diastolic murmur?DMARDs: Disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs?DMC: Diabetic microvascular complication?DME: ?DMPA: Depot medroxyprogesterone acetate?DMSA: Dimercaptosuccinic acid?DMSO: Dimethyl sulfoxide?DMV: Department of Motor Vehicles?DNA: Deoxyribonucleic acid?DNA: Did not attend (outpatients)?DNAR: Do not attempt resuscitation?DNR: Do not resuscitate?DOA: Dead on arrival?DOB: Date of birth?DOD: Date of death?DOE: Dyspnea on exertion?DOPA: Dihydroxyphenylalanine?DOPAC: Dihydroxyphenylacetic acid?DOQI: Dialysis Outcomes Quality Initiative?DOT: Directly observed therapy?DPD: Dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase?DPL: Diagnostic Peritoneal Lavage?DPN: Diabetic peripheral neuropathy?DPT: Diphtheria, Pertussis, Tetanus vaccine?DR: Diabetic retinopathy?DRE: Digital rectal examination?DRI: Dietary reference intake?DRT: Decimal reduction time?DSM: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders?DSM-IV: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual IV?DT: delirium Tremens ?DTaP: Diphtheria, Tetanus, acellular, Pertussis vaccine?DTIC: Dacarbazine?DTP: Dipheria, tetanus, pertussis (vaccine) toxoid?DTPA: Diethylenetriaminetetraacetic acid?DTR: Deep tender reflex?DTs: Delirium tremens?DU: Diagnosis undetermined?DU: Duodenal ulcer?DUB: Dysfunctional uterine bleeding?DUE: Drug use evaluation?dup. : Double?DVT: Deep vein thrombosis?DW: Distilled water?DWI: Diffusion weighted images?Dx: Diagnosis?DXT: Deep X ray therapy?E. coli: Escherichia coli?e.m.p. : As directed?E/I: Expiration-inspiration ratio?E1: Estrone?E2: Estradiol?EAR: Estimated average requirement?EB: Epstein Barr virus?EBNA: EB virus nuclear antigen?EBV: Epstein Barr virus?EC: Electron capture?EC: enteric coated?ECBV: Effective circulating blood volume?ECF: Extracellular fluid?ECFV: Extracellular fluid volume?ECG: Electrocardiograph?ECHO: Echocardiogram?ECHO: Echoencephalogram?ECL: Enterochromaffin-like?ECM: Erythema chronicum migrans?ECMO: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation?ECT: Electroconvulsive therapy?ED: Emergency department?ED: Erectile dysfunction?EDD: Expected date of delivery?EDRF: Endothelium-derived relaxing factor?EDSS: Expanded Disability Status Scale?EDTA: Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid?EDV: End-diastolic volume?EE: Ethinyl estradiol ?EEG: Electroencephalogram?EENT: Eyes, ears, nose, and throat?EF: Erectile Function?EFS: Event free-survival?EFW: Estimated fetal weight?EGD: Esophagogastroduodenoscopy ?EGF: Epidermal Growth Factor?EGFa: Epidermal Growth Factor alpha?EGFr: Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor?EHEC: Enterohemorrhagic E coli ?EIA: Enzyme immunoassay?EIEC: Enteroinvasive E coli?EKG: Electrocardiogram?ELBW: Extremely low birth weight?ELISA: Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay?elix. : Elixir?EM: Ejection murmur?EMBP: Estramustine-binding protein?EMG: Electromyogram?EMRs: Electronic medical records?EMS: Early morning specimen?EN: Erythema nodosum?ENS: Enteric nervous system?ENT: Ears, nose, and throat?EP: Ectopic pregnancy?EPDS: Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale?EPO: Erythropoietin?EPO: Evening Primrose oil?EPS: Extrapyramidal signs and symptoms?EPSE: Extra-pyramidal side effects?ER: Emergency room?ERCP: Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography?ERT: Estrogen replacement therapy?ESBLs: Extended spectrum beta-lactamases?ESM: Ejection systolic murmur?ESN: Educationally subnormal?ESP: End-systolic pressure?ESPRIT: Efficacy and Safety in Patients with Renal Impairment treated with Telmisartan?ESR: Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (sed rate)?ESRD: End Stage Renal Disease?ESRF: End-stage renal failure?ESWL: Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy?Et: And?ET: Endotracheal tube?ETEC: Enterotoxigenic E coli?EtOH: Alcohol?ETT: Endotracheal tube?ETT: Exercise tolerance test?EUA: Examination under anaesthetic?EUS: Endoscopic ultrasonography?ex aq.: In water?F: Fission (nuclear pharmacy)?F: Fahrenheit?FAS: Fetal alcohol syndrome?FAST: Focused Abdominal Sonography in Trauma?FB: Finger breadth?FB: Foreign body?FBC: Full blood count?FBS: Fasting blood sugar?FCAS: Familial Cold Auto-Inflammatory Syndrome?FCE: Finished consultant episode?FDA: Food and Drug Administration?FDG: fluorodeoxyglucose?FENa: Fractional Excretion of Sodium?FEP: Free erythrocyte protoporphyrin?FEV: Forced expiratory volume?FEV1: Forced expiratory volume in the first second?FFA: Free fatty acids?FFP: Fresh frozen plasma?FH: Family history?FHR: Fetal heart rate?FIO2: Fractional Inspiration of Oxygen?FISH: fluorescent in situ hybridization ?fl: Fluid?FL: Follicular Lymphoma?FL: Follicular non-Hodgkin\'s lymphoma?fld : Fluid?FNA: Fine-needle aspiration?FOB: Faecal occult blood?FOBT: Fecal Occult Blood Test?FOOSH: Fall On an Out-Stretched Hand?fort. : Strong?FP: Fluticasone propionate?FP: Frozen plasma?FRC: Functional reserve capacity?FRC: Functional residual capacity?FROM: Full range of movement?FSD: Female sexual dysfunction?FSFI: Female sexual function index?FSG: Focal segmental glomerulonephritis?FSH: Follicle-stimulating hormone?ft. : Make?FT3: Free triiodothyronine?FT4: Free thyroxine?FTA-ABS: Fluorescent treponemal antibody absorption?FTI: Free Thyroxine Index?FTT: Failure to thrive?FUO: Fever of unknown origin?FVC: Force vital capacity?fx: Fracture; fraction?g: Gram?G6PD: Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase?GA: General anaesthesia?GA: General appearance?GABA: γ-aminobutyric acid?GAD: Generalized anxiety disorder?GAS: Group A streptococcus?GB: Gallbladder?GB-C virus: ?GBL: Gamma-butyrolactone?GBM: Glioblastoma multiforme?GBM: Glomerular basement membrane?GBP: Gastric bypass?GBS: Group B streptococcus?GBS: Guillain-Barré Syndrom?GC: Gonorrhea?GCS: Glasgow Coma Score?GCS: Glasgow Coma Scale?G-CSF: Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor?GDM: Gastrointestinal diabetes mellitus?GER: Gastroesophageal reflex?GERD: Gastroesophageal reflux disorder?GF: Glomerular filtration?GFR: Glomerular filtration rate?GGT: Gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase?g-GT: y-glutamyl transpeptidase (transferase)?GGTP: ?GH: Growth hormone?GHB: Gamma hydroxybutyrate?GHRH: Growth hormone-releasing hormone?GHRIH: Growth hormone release inhibiting hormone?GI: Gastrointestinal?GI GVHD: gastrointestinal graft-versus-host disease?GIFT: Gamete intrafallopian transfer?GIK: Glucose, insulin and potassium?GIQLI: GI Quality of Life Index?GIST: Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors?GIT: Gastrointestinal tract?GLA: y-linolenic acid?GLP-1: Glucagon-like peptide-1?Gm: Gram?GM seizure: Grand mal seizure?GM-CSF: Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor?GN: Glomerulonephritis?GNDC: Gram-negative diplococci?GnRH: GONADOTROPIN-RELEASING HORMONE?GPe: Globus pallidus externa?GPi: Globus pallidus interna?gr : Grain?gr. : Grain?Grav.: Gravid (pregnant)?GRE: Glucocorticoid receptor elements?GS: General surgery?GS: Genital system?GSD II: Glycogen storage disease II?GSRS: Gastrointestinal Symptoms Rating Scale?GSW: Gunshot wound?GTC: Generalised tonicclonic?GTN: Gestation trophoblastic neoplasia?GTN: Glyceryl trinitrate?GTT: Glucose tolerance test?gtt: Drop?GU: Gastric ulcer?GU: Genitourinary?GU: Gonococcal urethritis?GUS: Genitourinary system?GUSTO: ?GVHD: Graft-versus-host disease?GVL: graft versus leukemia?gyn: Gynaecology?H: Hypodermic?H & P: History and physical?H&L: Heart and lungs?h.: Hour?h.s. : At bed time?h/o: History of?HA: Headache?HAA: Hepatitis-associated antigen?HAART: Highly active antiretroviral therapy?HACE: High Altitude Cerebral Edema?HACEK: Haemophilus, Actinobacillus, Cardiobacterium, Eikenella, Kingella?HAHA: Human anti-human antibody?HAMA: Hamilton Anxiety Scale?HAPE: High Altitude Pulmonary Edema?HAS: Human albumin solution?HAV: Hepatitis A virus?Hb: Hemoglobin?HB: Heart block?HbA1c: Glucosylated hemoglobin?HBAg: Hepatitis B antigen?HBD: Hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase?HBDM: Hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase?HbF: Hemoglobin, fetal?HBGM: Home blood glucose monitoring?HBIG: Hepatitis B immune globulin?HBO: Hyperbaric oxygen?HBsAg: Hepatitis B surface antigen?HBsAG: Hepatitis B surface antigen?HBV: Hepatitis B virus?HC: Head circumference?HCC: Hepatocellular carcinoma?hCG: Human chorionic gonadotropin ?HCO3: Bicarbonate?Hct: Hematocrit?HCT: hematopoietic cell transplantation?HCTZ: Hydrochlorothiazide?HCV: Hepatitis C virus?HCVD: Hypertensive cardiovascular disease?HD: hemodialysis?HDAC: Histone deacetylase?HDCV: Human diploid cell rabies vaccine?HDL: High-density lipoproteins?HDP: Hydroxymethylene diphosphonate?HDUL-C: High-density lipoprotein cholesterol?HDV: Hepatitis D virus?HE: Granulocytic ehrlichiosis?HEDP: 1-hydroxyethylidene diphosphonate?HEENT: Head, eyes, ears, nose, throat?HELLP: Hemolysis, elevated liver functions, low platelets?HEMA: Hydroxyethylmethacrylate?Hep A: Hepatitis A?HEPA: High-efficient particulate air filters?HER1: Human epidermal growth factor receptor?HER-2neu: A receptor present in some breast cancers?HERG: ?HES: Hypereosinophilic syndrome?HEV: Hepatitis E virus?HF: Heart failure?HFE: ?Hgb: Hemoglobin?HgbAIC: Glycosylated hemoglobin?HGPRT: Hypoxanthineguanine phosphoribosyl transferase?HGV: Hepatitis G virus?HHNKC: Hyperglycemic Hyperosmolar Non-Ketotic Coma?HHV: Human herpes virus?HHV-8: Human herpesvirus-8?HIAA: 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid?Hib: Haemophilus influenzae type b?HIDA: Hepatobiliary nuclear scan?HIDA: N[N\'(2,6dimethylphenyl)varbamoylmethyl] iminodiacetic acid?HIE: Hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy?HIFU: High-intensity focused ultrasound?HIT: Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia?HIV: Immunodefieciency virus?HLA: Human leukocyte antigen?HMD: Hyaline membrane disease?hMG: Human menopausal gonadotropins?HMG-CoA: 3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A?HMM: Hexamethylmelamine?HMMA: 4-hydroxy-3-methoxymandelic acid?HMSN: Hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy?HMW: High-molecular weight?HNPCC: Hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer?HO: House officer?HOPE: Heart Outcomes Prevention Evaluation?HP: hemoperfusion?HPA: Hypothalamic pituitary adrenal?HPC: Hematopoietic progenitor cell?HPEN: Home pareneral and enteral nutrition?HPF: High-power field?HPI: History of present illness?HPN: Home parenteral nutrition?HPV: Human papilloma virus?HR: Heart rate?HR: hazard ratio?hr.: Hour?HRCT: High-resolution computed tomographic?HRQL: Health-related quality of life?HRT: Hormone replacement therapy?hs: At bed time?HS: Half strength?HS: Hartmann\'s solution?HS: Heart sounds?HSA: Human serum albumin?HSCT: Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation?HSIL: High-grade squamous intraepithelial lesiion?HSM: Hepatosplenomegaly?HSP: Henoch-Scholnlein purpura?HSV: Herpes simplex virus?HSV-1: Herpes simplex virus type 1?HSV-2: Herpes simplex virus type 2?HT: Hormone therapy?ht. : Draught?HTLV-1: Human T cell leukemia virus?HTN: Hypertension?HTST: High-temperature short-time pasteurization?HTVD: Hypertensive cardiovascular disease?HUS: Haemolytic uraemic sundrome?HVA: Homovanillic acid?HVD: Hypertensive vascular disease?HVL: Half-value layer?Hx: History?HZ: Herpes zoster?I & O: Intake and output?i.c. : Between meals?I:E ratio: Inspiratory to expiratory ratio?IABC: Intra-Aortic Balloon Counterpulsation?IADHS: Inappropriate antidiuretic hormone syndrome?IBC: Iron binding capacity?IBD: Inflammatory bowel disease?IBS: Irritable bowel syndrome?IC: Intercostal?IC: Intracerebral?IC: Intracranial?ICA: Islet cell antibody?ICD: International classification of disease?ICDs: Implantable cardioverter-defibrillator devices?ICF: Intracellular fluid?ICH: Intracerebral haemorrhage?ICM: Intracostal margin?ICP: Intracranial pressure?ICRP: International Committee on Radiation Protection?ICS: Inhaled corticosteroids?ICS: Intercostal space?ICSI: Intracytoplasmic sperm injection?ICU: Intensive Care Unit?ID: Intradermal?IDDM: Insulin dependent diabetes mellitus?IDE: Investigational Device Exeption?IDL: Intermediate density lipoproteins?IDU: Idoxuridine?IEF: Incontinence episodes frequency?IEP: Immunoelectrophoresis?IES: Intergroup Exemestane Study?IFA: Indirect immunofluorescence assay?IFIs: Invasive fungal infections?IFN: Interferon?Ig: Immunoglobulin?IgA: Immunoglobulin A?IgD: Immunoglobulin D?IgE: Immunoglobulin E?IGF-I: Insulin-like growth factor-I?IgG: Immunoglobulin G?IGIV: Immune globulin IV?IgM: Immunoglobulin M?Igs: Immunoglobulins?IGT: Impaired glucose tolerance?IHD: Ischaemic heart disease?IHR: Intrinsic heart rate?IHSS: Idiopathic hypertrophic subaortic stenosis?IKr: ?IL-1: Interleukin-1?IL-2: Interleukin-2?ILD: Interstitial lung disease?IM: Intramuscular?IMA: Inferior Mesenteric Artery?IMI: Inferior myocardial infarction?IMP: Impression?IMRT: Intensity modulated radiation therapy?IND: Notice of Claimed Investigational Exemption for a New Drug?Inf. MI: Inferior myocardial infarction?INH: Isoniazid?inj. : injection?INR: International normalized ratio?int. : Between?IOM: Institute of Medicine?IOP: Intraocular pressure?IP: Intraperitoneal?IP: inpatient?IPA: Inhibition of platelet Aggregation?IPC: Intermittent pneumatic compression?IPF: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis?IPP: Intermittent positive pressure inflation with oxygen?IPPB: Intermittent positive pressure breathing?IPPV: Intermittent positive pressure ventilation?IPSID: Immunoproliferative small intestinal disease?iPTH: ?IPV: Inactivated polio vaccine?IQ: Inhibitory Quotient?IQ: Intelligence quotient?IR: immediate release?IRDS: Idiopathic respiratory distress syndrome?IS: Insertion sequences?ISA: Intrinsic sympathomimetic activity?ISDN: Isosorbide dinitrate?ISE: Ion-selective electrode?ISH: Isolated systolic hypertension?ISM: Indolent systemic mastocytosis?IT: Isomeric transition?ITLC: Instant thin-layer chromatography?ITP: Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura?ITT: Insulin tolerance test?ITT: Intent-to-treat?IU: International unit?IUCD: Intrauterine contraceptive device?IUD: Intrauterine device?IUFD: Intrauterine fetal demise?IUGR: Intrauterine growth restriction?IUI: Intrauterine insemination?IUP: Intrauterine Pregnancy?IV: Intravenous?IVC: Inferior vena cava?IVD: Intervertebral disc?IVF: In vitro fertilization?IVH: Intraventricular haemorrhage?IVIG: Intravenous immunoglobulin ?IVP: Intravenous pyelogram?IVPB: Intravenous piggy back?IVSD: Interventricular septal defect?IVU: Intravenous urography?IVUS: Intravascular ultrasound?J: Jaundice?J: Joules?JAIDS: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome?JCV: JC virus?JRA: Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis?JVD: Jugular venous distension?JVP: Jugular venous pressure?K+: Potassium?KA: Ketoacidosis?KCCT: Kaolin-cephalin clotting time?KGF: Keratinocyte growth factor?KLS: Kidney, liver, spleen?KPs: Keratic precipitates?KS: Kaposi\'s sarcoma?KSS: Kearns-Sayre syndrome?KUB: Kidney, ureter, and bladder?kV: Kilovolt?KVO: Keep vein open?L: Left?L&A: Light and accommodation?L&U: Lower and upper?L&W: Living and well?L1, L2, …: Lumbar vertebrae 1,2,…?LA: Left arm?LA: Left atrium?LA: Local anaesthesia?LA: Long-acting?LABA: Long acting beta2-agonist?LAD: Left anterior descending?LAD: Left Axis Deviation?LAL: Limulus amebocyte lysate?LAP: Leukocyte alkaline phosphatase?LASIK: Laser in situ keratomileusis?LBBB: Left Bundel Branch Block?LBM: Lean body mass?LBW: Low birth weight?LCAT: Lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase?LCIS: Lobular carcinoma in situ?LCPD: Legg-Calve-Perthes disease?LCR: Ligase chain reaction?LCT: Long chain triglyceride?LD: Lactate dehydrogenase?LD : Leathal Dose?LD: Low dose?LDH: Lactic dehydrogenase?LDL: Low-density lipoproteins?LDL-C: Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol?LDUH: Low dose unfractionated heparin?Le: Lupus erythematosus?LEEP: Loop electrosurgical excision procedure?LES: Lower Esophageal Sphincter?LFT: Liver function test?LGA: Large for gestational age?LGSIL: Low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion?LGV: Lymphogranuloma venereum?LH: Luteinizing hormone?LHRH: Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone?LIC: liver iron concentration?LIF: Left iliac fossa?liq.: Solution?LK: Left kidney?LKKS: Lever, kidneys, spleen?LKS: Liver, kidney, spleen?LL: Left leg?LL: Left lower?LL: Lower lobe?LLL: Left lower lobe?LLL: Loft lower lid?LLQ: Left lower quadrant?LMN: Lower motor neuron?LMP: Last menstrual period?LMW: Low molecular weight?LMWH: Low molecular weight heparin?LN: Lymph node?LNMP: Last normal menstrual period?LOC: Level of consciousness?LOC: Loss of consciousness?LOM: Limitation of movement?lot. : Lotion?LOX: Liquid oxygen system?LP: Lumbar puncture?LP(a): Lipoprotein(a)?LPA: Left pulmonary artery?LPL: Lipoprotein lipase?LPS: Latency to persistent sleep?LPS: Lipopolysaccharide?LR: Lactated Ringer\'s Solution?LS: Left side?LS: Liver and spleen?LS: Lumbosacral?LS: Lymphosarcoma?LSB: Left Sternal Border?LSD: Lysergic acid diethylamide?LSIL: Low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion?LSK: Liver, spleen, kidneys?LSM: Late systolic murmur?LT: Leukotriene?LTC: Long term care?LTE: Long Term Extension?LTG: Lamotrigine?LTI: Lowest Threshold Intake?LTOT: Long term oxygen therapy?LUL: Left upper lobe?LUQ: Left upper quadrant?LV: Left ventricle ?LV: Lymphogranuloma Venereum?LVDP: Left ventricular diastolic pressure?LVE: Left ventricular enlargement?LVEDP: Left ventricular end diastolic volume?LVET: Left ventricular ejection time?LVF: Left Ventricular function?LVH: Left ventricular hypertension?LVMI: Left ventricle mass index?LVP: Left ventricular pressure?LVSD: Left ventricular systolic dysfunction?lytes : Electrolytes?M: Male?M: Married?M: Meter?M: Mother?M: Molar?M: Murmur?M.: Mix?m. : In the morning?m.d. : As directed?m.d.u. : To be used as directed?M:P: Milk to plasma ratio?MAA: Macroaggregated albumin?MAB: Maximal androgen blockade?MABP: Mean arterial blood pressure?MAC: Mycobacterium avium complex?MADRS: Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale?MAI: Mycobacterium avium intracellulare?MALT: Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue?MALToma: Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma?MAMC: Mid arm muscle circumference?MAO: Monoamine oxidase?MAO-A: Monoamine oxidase A?MAO-B: Monoamine oxidase B?MAOI: Monoamine oxidase inhibitor?MAP: Mean arterial pressure?MAS: Meconium aspiration syndrome?MASES: Maastricht Ankylosing Spondylitis Enthesitis Score?MAST: Military Anti-Shock Trousers?MAT: Multifocal Atrial Tachycardia?MB fraction: ?M-BACOD: Methotrexate, bleomycin, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone?MBC: Minimal bactericidal concentration?MBP: Mean blood pressure?MCA: Medicines control agency?MCA: Middle cerebral artery?mcg: Microgram?MCH: Mean corpuscular hemoglobin?MCHC: Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration?MCL: Mantle cell lymphoma?MCL: Mast cell leukemia?MCL: Medial Collateral Ligament?MCP: Metacarpal phalangeal (joint)?mCPP: m-Chlorophenylpiperazine?mCRC: Metastatic colorectal cancer?MCS: Mast cell sarcoma?MCT: Medium chain triglycerides?MCTD: Mixed connective tissue disease?MCV: Mean corpuscular volume?MCV : Mean corpuscular cell volume?MD: Mitral disease?MD: Muscular dystrophy?MDD: Major depressive disorder?MDHD: Maximum daily human dose?MDIs: Metered-dose inhalers?MDM: Mid diastolic murmur?MDMA: Methylenedioxymethamphetamine?MDP: Methylene diphosphonate?MDR: Multidrug resistance?MDRD: Modification of Diet in Renal Disease?MDRSP: multi-drug resistant Streptococcus pneumonia?MDRTB: Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis?MDRTB: Multidrug resistant tuberculosis?MDS: Myelodysplastic Syndrome?ME: Myalgic encephalitis?MEIA: Microparticle Enzyme Immunoassay?MEK: Methyl ethyl ketone?MELSA: Myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes?MEN: Multiple endocrine neoplasia?MEN: Multiple endocrine neoplasia?MERRF: Myoclonic epilepsy, ragged red fiber syndrome?MESA: Microsurgical epididymal sperm aspiration?Met.: Metastatic (metastasis)?MetHb: Methemoglobin?MFS: Major facilitator superfamily?MG: Myasthenia Gravis?MGN: Membranous glomerulonephritis?MGUS: Monoclonal Gammopathy of Uncertain Significance?MH: Medical history?MH: Menstrual history?MHA-TP: ?MHC: Major histocompatibility complex?MHPG: Methoxyhydroxyphenylglycerol?Mhrpc: Metastatic hormone refractory prostate cancer?MI: Mitral incompetence or insufficiency?MI: Myocardial infraction?MIC: Minimal inhibitory concentration?MICU: Medical Intensive Care Unit?MID: Multi infract dementia?MIRD: Medical internal radiation dose?mist.: mixture?MIT: monoiodotyrosine?mitt. : send?mL: Milliliter?ML: Middle lobe?ML: Midline?MLV: murine leukemia viruses ?MM fraction: ?MMC: Maternally inherited myopathy and cardiomyopathy?MMF: Mycophenolate mofetil?mmHg: Millimeters of mercury?MMI: Methimazole?MMPR: 6-methylmercaptopurine ribotide?MMR: Measles-mumps-rubella vaccine?MMSE: Mini-Mental State Examination?MOM: Milk of magnesia?MOPP: Mistune, oncovin (vincristine), procarbazine?MPA: Maximum platelet aggregation?MPC: Metastatic adenocarcinoma of the pancreas?MPCM: Maculopapular cutaneous mastocytosis?MPD: Maximum permissible dose?MPD: Myeloproliferative disorders?MPGN: Membranoproliferative Glomerulonephritis?MPJ: Metacarpophalangeal joint?MPM: Malignant pleural mesothelioma?MPS II: Mucopolysaccharidosis II?MPTP: 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,5,6-tetrahydropyridine?MR: Mental retardation?MR: Mitral regurgitation?MRA: Magnetic resonance angiography, Magnetic resonance angiogram?MRCP: Magnetic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography?MRD: Minimal residual disease?MRDM: Malnutrition related diabetes mellitus?MRHD: Maximum recommended human dose?MRI: Magnetic resonance imaging?MRSA: Methicillin resistant Ataphylococcus Aureus?MRV: Magnetic resonance venography?MS: Morphine sulfate?MS: Multiple sclerosis?MS: Mitral stenosis?MSA: Membrance-stabilizing activity?MSAFP: Maternal serum alpha fetoprotein?MSDBP: Mean sitting diastolic blood pressure?MSH: Melanocyte-stimulating hormone?MSI: Microsatellite instability?MSL: Midsternal line?MSSBP: Mean sitting systolic blood pressure?MSU: Midstream time interval?MTB: ?MTD: 2-methy-1,2,4-thiadiazole-5-thiol?MTD: maximum tolerated dose?mTOR: Mammalian target of rapamycin?MTP: ?MTS: Mouth and Throat Soreness?MTT: Methyl-tetrazole-thiomethyl?MTX: Methotrexate?MUGA: Multigated acquisition?MV: Minute volume?MV: Mitral valve?MVA: Motor Vehicle Accident?MVAC: Methotrexate, Vinblastine, Doxorubicin, and Cisplatin?MVP: Mitral valve prolapse?MVPP: Mustine, vinblastine, procarbazine, prednisolone?MVR: Mitral valve replacement?MWS: Muckle-Wells Syndrome?N: Neutron (nuclear pharmacy)?N: Normal?N & V: Nausea and vomiting?N & V: Nausea and vomiting?N&T: Nose and throat?n. : At night?n. et m. : Night and morning?N.F.: National Formulary?n.m. : Night and morning ?n.p. : The proper name?N.S.: Normal saline?N/K: Not known?N/S: Normal saline?N/V: Nausea/Vomiting?NA: Noradrenaline?NAC: N-acetylcysteine?NACC: National association for colitis and crohn\'s disease?NACS: Neurological and adaptive capacity scoring?NAD: Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide?NADP: Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate?NAFLD: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease?NAG: Narrow angle glaucoma?NaHCO3: Sodium bicarbonate?NAION: Non-arteritis anterior ischemic optic neuropathy?NAPA: N-acetylprocainamide?NAPQI: N- acetyl-p-benzoquinoneimine?narist.: Nose drops?NARP: Neurogenic muscular weakness with ataxia and retinitis pigmentosa?NARTI: Nucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase?NBM: Nil by mouth?NC: Less than 10% change in plasma concentration.?NCA: No carrier added?NCCTG: North Central Cancer Treatment Group?NCRP: National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurement?NDA: New Drug Application?NDI: ?nd-NMBAs: Nondepolarizing neuromuscular blocking agents?NE: Norepinephrine?NE: Not Evaluated?neb.: Spray solution?NEC: Necrotizing enterocolitis?NF: Neurofibromatosis?NG: Nasogastric?NHL: Non Hodgkin\'s syndrome?NHS: National health service?NIAID: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases?NIDDM: Non insulin dependent diabetes mellitus?NK: Natural killer cell?NKHA: Non ketotic hyperosmolar acidosis?NMBA: Neuromuscular Blocking Agent?NMDA: N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor ?NMR: Nuclear magnetic resonance?NMS: Neuroleptic malignant syndrome?NMTT: N-methylthiotetrazole?NNRT: Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase?NNRTI: Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor?noct. : Night?NOF: Neck of femur?non rep.: Do not repeat?NOS: Nitric Oxide Synthase?NP-59: 6β-iodomethyl-19-norcholesterol?NPH: ?NPN: Non-protein nitrogen?NPO: Nulla Per Os (Nothing by mouth)?NPPV: Noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation?NRC: Nuclear Regulatory Commission?NREM: Non-rapid eye movement sleep?NRTIs: Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors?NS: Nephrotic syndrome?NS: Nervous system?NS: Normal saline?NS : No specimen?NSAAs: NonSteroidal Anti-Androgens?NSABP: National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project?NSAID: NonSteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drug?NSB: Normal sinus beat?NSCLC: Non-small cell lung cancer?NSFTD: Normal spontaneous full term delivery?NSIP: Nonspecific interstitial pneumonitis?NSR: Normal sinus rhythm?NSS: Normal Saline Solution?NST: Nonstress test?NSTEMI: Non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction?NSU: Nonspecific urethritis?NSVT: Nonsustained ventricular tachycardia?NT: Nasotracheal (tube)?NTD: Neural tube defect?NTG: Nitroglycerin?NTM: Nontuberculous mycobacteria?NTS: Nucleus tractus solitarius?NTZ: Nitazoxanide?NVD: Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, neck vein distention?o: absent?O: Oedema?O&A: Observation and assessment?O&E: Observation and examination?O.: Pint?o.alt.hor : Every other hour?o.d. : Every day?o.d. : Right eye?o.l.: Left eye?o.m. : Every morning?o.n. : Every night?o.u. : Both eyes?O/A: On admission?O/E: On examination?O/E: On examination?O2: Oxygen?OA: Osteoarthritis?OA: Osteoarthritis?OAD: Obstructive airway disease?OAF: Osteoclast activating factor?OAG: Open angle glaucoma?OB: Occult blood?OBS: Organic Brain Syndrome?Obs-Gyn: Obstetrics and gynaecology?OCD: Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder?OCD: Obsessive-compulsive disorder?OCP: Oral contraceptive pill?OCP: Oral contraceptive pill?OCs: Oral contraceptives?oculent.: Eye ointment?OD: Right eye?OD: Overdose?OD: Overdose?ODAC: Oncologic Drug Advisory Committee?OGTT: Oral glucose tolerance test?OH: Occupational history?OI: Opportunistic infection?OKGA: Ornithine salt of a-ketoglutaric acid?OME: Otitis media with effusion?OMFS: Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery?ONJ: Osteonecrosis of the jaw?OOB: Out of bed?OP: Out patients?OPA: Outpatient appointment?OPD: Outpatient department?OPV: Oral polio vaccine?OR: Operating room?ORIF: Open Reduction with Internal Fixation?ORR: Objective response rate?OS: Left eye?OS: Overall survival?OSD: Osgood-Schlatter disease?OSHA: Occupational Safety and Health Administration?OT: Occupational therapy?OTC: Over-the-counter?OTE: Overall Treatment Effect?OU: Both eyes?P: Proton?P&A: Percussion and auscultation?P&V: Pyloroplasty and vogotomy?p.a.: To the affected part?p.aeq. : Equal parts?p.m.: Afternoon; evening?p.m. : Afternoon?p.o.: By mouth?PA: Pernicious anaemia?PA: Pulmonary artery?PACG: Primary angle closure glaucoma?PaCO2: Arterial carbon dioxide tension?PAD: Peripheral Arterial Disease?PAF: Prednisone plus Adriamycin plus fluorouracil?PAF: Platelet activating factor?PAGE: Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis?PAH: Pulmonary arterial hypertension?PAI-1: Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1?PALS: Pediatric Advanced Life Support?pANCA: Perinuclear Antineutrophilic Cytoplasmic Antibody?PANCA: Perinuclear pattern of ANCA?PANCAs: Perinuclear pattern of ANCAs?PANSS: Positive and Negative Symptoms Scale?PaO2: Arterial oxygen pressure tension, Partial Pressure of Oxygen?Pap: Papanicolaou smear?PAPS: Primary antiphospholipid syndrome?PAR: Perennial allergic rhinitis?Para: Number of pregnancies?part. affect.: To be applied to the affected part?Part. dolent. : To the painful part?PAS: P-aminosalicylic acid?PASI: Psoriasis Area and Severity Index?Past.: paste?PAT: Paroxysmal atrial tachycardia?PAWP: Pulmonary artery wedge pressure?Pb: Lead?PB: Premature beats?PBC: Primary biliary cirrhosis?PBI: Protein-bound iodine?PBPs: Penicillin binding proteins?PBSC: Peripheral blood stem cell support?PBSCT: Peripheral stem cell transplantation?PC: After meal?PCA: Patient-controlled analgesia?PCAS: Patient controlled analgesia system?PCD: Pediatric Crohn\'s disease?PCEC: Purified chick embryo cell?PCI: Percutaneous coronary intervention?PCL: Posterior Cruciate Ligament?PCN: Penicillin?PCO2: Partial pressure of carbon dioxide?PCOS: Polycystic ovarian syndrome?PCP: Phencyclidine?PCP: Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia?PCP: Primary Care Physician?PCPA: p-chlorophenylalanine?PCPT: Prostate Cancer Prevention Trail?PCR: Polymerase chain reaction?PCr: Plasma creatinine concentration?PCS: Portocaval shunt?PCT: Porphyria Cutanea Tarda?PCV: Pressure control ventilation?PCV: Packed cell volume ?PCWP: Pulmonary capillary wedge pressure?PD: Parkinson\'s disease?PD: Peritoneal dialysis?PD: Personality Disorder?PD: Pro-drug?PDA: Patent ductus arteriosus?PDE: Phosphodiesterase?PDQ: At once?PDT: Photodynamic therapy?PE: Phenytoin equivalents?PE: Physical examination?PE: Pleural effusion?PE: Pulmonary embolism?PEAR: Pearson syndrome?PEEP: Positive end-expiratory pressure?PEF: Peak expiratory flow?PEFR: Peak expiratory flow rate?PEG: Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy?PEJ: Percutaneous endoscopic jejunostomy?PEM: Prescription event monitoring?PEP: Positive expiratory pressure?PERLA: Pupils equal, react to light and accommodation?PERRLA: Pupils equal, round, react to light and accommodation?PERRLA: Pupils equal and react to light and accommodation?PET: Positron emission tomography?PF: Peak flow?PFR: Peak flow rate?PFS: Progression free survival?PFT: Pulmonary function test?PG: Prostaglandin?PGA-1: Polyglandular autoimmunity type I?PGD: Pre-implantation genetic diagnosis?PGE: Prostaglandin?PGWBI: Psychological Well-Being Index?PH: Past history?PH: Patient history?PH: Personal history?PH: Prostatic hypertension?PH: Pulmonary hypertension?Ph+: Philadelphia-chromosome positive?PHA: Phytohemagglutinin?PHN: Postherpetic neuralgia?PI: Protease inhibitor?PI: Present illness?PI: Protease inhibitor?PICC: Peripherally inserted central catheter?PICU: Pediatric intensive care unit?PID: Pelvic inflammatory disease?PIF: Prolactin inhibitory factor?Pig.: paint?PIP: Proximal interphalangeal joint?PIPIDA: Paraisopropyliminodiacetic acid?PIVD: Protruded intervertebral disc?PIVOT: Prostate Cancer Intervention Versus Observation Trail?PJB: Premature junctional beat?PJC: Premature junctional contraction?PJD: Prevention of Joint Damage?PK: pharmacokinetics?PKC : Protein Kinase C?PKU: Pheylketonuria?PL: Product license?PM: Photomultiplier (tube)?PM: Postmortem?PMDD: Premenstrual dysphoric disorder?PMH: Past medical history?PMI: Past medical illness?PMI: Point of Maximal Impulse?PML: Multifocal leukoencephalopathy?PML: Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy?PMMA: Polymethylmethacrylate?PMN: Polymorphonuclear neutrophils?PMS: Premenstrual syndrome?PMS: Postmenopausal syndrome?PMT : Premenstrual tension?PMV: Prolapsed mitral valve?PN: Percussion note?PN: Peripheral nerve?PN: Peripheral neuropathy?PNa: Plasma sodium concentration?PND: Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnoea?PNH: Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria?PO: By mouth?PO: Oral (peroral)?PO: Per os?PO2: Partial pressure of oxygen?POAG: Primary open angel glaucoma?POC: Products of conception?POI: Postoperative ileus?POMR: Problem oriented medical record?Postop: After surgery?PP: Periodic Paralysis?pp. : Parts?PPAR: Peroxisome proliferators activated receptor?PPAR-α: Peroxisome proliferators activated receptor-alpha?PPAR-γ: Peroxisome Proliferators-activated receptor gamma?PPC: Postpartum Cardiomyopathay?PPD: Purified protein derivative?PPH: Postpartum haemorrhage?PPI: Proton pump inhibitor?PPNG: Penicillinase producing Neisseria gonorroehoeae?PPV : Positive pressure ventilation?PR: Partial response?PR: Per rectum?PRA: Plasma Renin activity?PRCA: Pure red cell aplasia?Preop: Before surgery?PRH: Prolactin releasing hormone?PRI: Population Reference Intake?PRK: Photorefractive keratectomy?PRL: Prolactin?PRM: Primidone?prn: As needed?PROM: Premature rupture of membrane?PS: Pulmonary stenosis?PS: Pyloric stenosis?PsA: Psoriatic arthritis?PSA: Prostate-specific antigen?PSAD: Prostate-specific antigen density?PSC: Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis?PSG: polysomnographic?PSGN: Poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis?PSI: Pneumonia Severity Index?PSVT: Paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia?Pt: Patient?PT: Prothrombin time?PT: Parathyroid?PT: Paroxysmal tachycardia?PT: Physical therapy?PT: Physical training?PT: Posterior tibial (pulse)?PT: Prothrombin time?PT: Prothrombin time?PTA: Prior to admission?PTC: Percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography?PTC: Percutaneous transhepatic cholangiogram?PTCA: Percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty?PTFL: Posteriior Talo-Fibular Ligament?PTH: Parathyroid hormone?PTHrP: Parathyroid hormone-related protein?PTL: Preterm labor?PTSD: Post-traumatic stress disorder?PTT: Partial thromboplastin time?PTTK: Partial thromboplastin time kaolin?PTU: Propylthiouracil?PTX: Pneumothorax?PU: Pass urine, per urethra?PU: Peptic ulcer?PUD: Peptic ulcer disease?PUD: Pulmonary disease?Pulv.: Powder?Pulv. Consp.: Dusting?PUO: Pyrexia (fever) of unknown origin?PUVA: Psoralen plus Ultraviolet A light?PV: Vaginal examination (per vagina)?PVB: Premature ventricular beat?PVC: Premature ventricular contraction?PVD: Peripheral vascular disease?PVP: Percutaneous vertebroplasty?PVP: Pulmonary venous pressure?PVR: Peripheral vascular resistance?PVT: Paroxysmal ventricular tachycardia?PWM: Pokeweed mitogen?Px. : Past history?Px. : Prognosis?PZI: Protamine zinc insulin?q.d.s. : To be take four times daily?q.i.d.: Four times daily?q.q.h. : Every four hours?q.qq.h. : Every four hour?q.s. : Sufficient?q.s.: A sufficient quantity?q.s. ad: A sufficient quantity to make?QALY: Quality adjusted life year?qd: Every day?QF: Quality factor?qh: Every hour?qid: Four times a day?qod: Every other day?qq. : Every?qq. h. : Every hour?QRS: Wave in ECG?QT: Wave in ECG?R: Rectal?R: Respiration?R factors: Resistance factors?R.L.: Ringer\'s Lactate?R/L: Ringer\'s Lactate?RA: Right atrium?RA: Renal artery?RA: Rheumatoid arthritis?RA: Right arm?RA: Right atrial (atrium)?RAI : Radioiodine scans?RAS: Rennin Angiotensin System?RAST: Radioallergosorbent test?RBBB: Right Bundel Branch Block?RBC: Red blood cell?RBE: Relative biologic effectiveness?RBF: Renal blood flow?RBP: Retinol-binding protein?RBS: Random blood sugar?RCC: Red blood count?RCC: Renal Cell Carcinoma?RCT: Randomized controlled trial?RDA: Recommended dietary allowance?RDS: Respiratory distress syndrome?RDW: Red blood cell distribution width?REE: Resting energy expenditure?REM: Rapid eye movement?REMS: Rapid eye movement sleep?Rf: Ratio in chromatography?RF: Renal failure?RF: Rheumatic fever?RF: Rheumatoid factor?RF: Risk Factor?RFS: Relapse-free survival?RFT: Respiratory function tests?RGD: ?RGP: Rigid gas permeable?Rh: Rhesus factor?Rh factor: Rhesus factor?rHA: Recombinant human endostatin?RHD: Renal hypertensive disease?RHD: Rheumatic heart disease;?RHF: Right heart failure?RHL: Right hepatic lobe?rhuEPO: Recombinant human erythropoietin?rhuGM-CSF: Recombinant human granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor?RIA: radioimmunoassay?RIBA: Recombinant immunoblot assay?RICE: Rest, ice, compression, elevation?RIF: Right iliac fossa?RIMA: Reversible inhibitor of monoamine oxidase type A?RISA: Radioiodinated serum albumin?RK: Right kidney?RL: Right leg?RL: Right lung?RLC: Residual lung capacity?RLD: Related living donor?RLL: Right lower lobe (lung)?RLQ: Right lower quadrant (abdomen)?RLS: Restless Legs Syndrome?RMSF: Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever?RNA: Ribonucleic acid?ROM: Range of motion?ROM: Rupture of membranes?ROS: Review of symptoms?RP: Radial pulse?RPE: Retinal pigment epithelium?RPF: Renal plasma flow?RPI: Resting pressure index?RPLS: Reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome?RPR: Rapid plasma regain?RQ: Respiratory quotient?RR: Recovery room; respiratory rate?RR&E: Round regular and equal (pupils)?RS: Respiratory system?RSAB: Recurrent spontaneous abortion?RSF: Rheumatoid serum factor?RSI: Rapid Sequence Intubation?RSO : Radiation Safety Officer?RSV: Respiratory syncytial virus?RSV-IVIG: RSV immunoglobulin?RT: Rapid tranquillisation?RTA: Road traffic accident?RTF: Resistance transfer factor?RTK: Receptor tyrosine kinases?rt-PA: Recombinant plasminogen activator?RUL: Right upper lobe?RUQ: Right upper quadrant?RV: Residual volume?RV: Right ventricle?RVA: Rabies vaccine adsorbed?RVH: Right ventricle hypertrophy?RVV: Russell viper venom?RVVT: Russell\'s viper venom clotting time?RW: Relative weight?Rx: Take?Š: Without?S&S: Signs and Symptoms?S.: Without?s.o.s: If necessary?S/S: Signs and Symptoms?S1: First heart sound?S2: Second heart sound?S3: Third heart sound?S4: Fourth heart sound?SA: Short-acting?SA: Sino-atrial?SA: Sinoatrial (node)?SA: Strokes-adams (attacks)?SA: Surface area?SAAG: Serum-ascites albumin gradient?SAARDs: Slow-acting antirheumatic drugs?SAB: Spontaneous abortion?SAD: Seasonal affective disorder?SAD: Social anxiety disorder?SAE: serious adverse events?SAH: Subarachnoid Hemorrhage?SAHA: Suberoylanilide hydroxamine acid?SANS: Scale for Assessing Negative Symptoms?SAP: Serum alkaline phosphatase?SAR: Seasonal allergic rhinitis?SARS: Sudden acute respiratory syndrome?SB: Seen by?SB: Shortness of breath?SBE: Subacute bacterial endocarditis?SBE: Shortness of breath on exertion?SBO: Small bowel obstruction?SBP: Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis?SBP: Systolic blood pressure?SC: Subcutaneous?SCCHN: Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck?SCFE: Slipped capital femoral epiphysis?SCI: Spinal Cord Injury?SCLC: Small cell lung cancer?SCr: Serum creatinine?SCU: See SCUF?SCUF: Slow continuous ultrafiltration?SD: Stable disease?SD: Standard deviation?SDD: Selective decontamination of the digestive tract?sec. art.: With pharmaceutical skill?Sed rate: Erythrocyte sedimentation rate?SELECT: The Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trail?SEM: Systolic ejection murmur?SEP: Sexual Encounter Profile?SERM: Selective estrogen receptor modulator?SES: Socioeconomic status?SGA: Small for gestational age?SGOT: Serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase?SGPT: Serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase?SGRQ: St. Georges Respiratory Questionnaire?SH: Social history?SH: Serum hepatitis?SHBG: Steroidal hormone-binding globulin?SHEP: Systolic Hypertension in the Elderly Program?SHPT: Secondary hyperparathyroidism?SIADH: Syndrome of inappropriate ADH secretion?SIADH: Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone?SIB: Self-injurious behavior?SIDS: Sudden infant death syndrome?Sig.: Write on label?SIMV: Synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation?SIRS: Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome ?sJIA: Systemic onset juvenile idiopathic arthritis?SJS: Stevens-Johnson syndrome?SJW: St. John\'s wart?SL: Sublingual?SLE: Systemic lupus erythematosus?SM: Systemic mastocytosis?SMA: Spinal muscular atrophy?SM-AHNMD: Systemic mastocytosis with an associated clonal hematologic non-mast cell lineage disease?SMR: Sexual maturity rating?SMX: Sulfamethoxazole?SMZ: Sulfamethoxazole?SNpr: Substantia nigra pars reticulata?SNRI: Serotonin noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor?SOA: Swelling of ankle(s)?SOAP: Subjective, objective, assessment, plan?SOB: Shortness of breath?SOBOE: Short of breath on exertion?sol.: Solution?SOS: Swelling of sacrum?SP: Systolic pressure?SPA: Suprapubic aspiration?SPA: special protocol assessment?SPC: Summary of product characteristics?SPECT: Single photo emission computed tomography?SPEP: Serum protein electrophoresis?SQ: Subcutaneous?SR: Sedimentation rate?SR: Sinus rhythm?SR: Sustained release?SREs: Skeletal-related events?SRS: Somatostatin receptor scintigraphy?SRY: Sex-region determining Y factor?ss.: One-half?SSI: Surgical Site Infection?SSRI: Serotonin-selective reuptake inhibitor?SSRIs: Serotonin-selective reuptake inhibitors?SSSS: Staphylococcal scalded-skin syndrome ?SSTI: Skin and Soft Tissue Infections?ST: Sinus tachycardia?STAT: As soon as possible?stat.: Immediately (latin: statim)?STD: Sexually transmitted disease?STD: Sodium tetradecyl sulphate?STDs: ?STEMI: ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction?STN: Subthalamic nucleus?STS: Serological tests for syphilis?SU: ?subc: Subcutaneously?subq: Subcutaneously?SUDEP: Sudden Unexpected Death in Epilepsy?SUI: Stress Urinary Incontinence?sum. t.: To be taken thrice thrice?sup.: Suppository?susp.: Suspension?SV: Stroke volume?SVC: Superior vena cava?SVI: Stroke volume index?SVR: Sustained virological response?SVR: Systemic Venous Resistance?SVT: Supraventricular tachycardia?SWS: Slow wave sleep?Sx: Symptoms?syr.: Syrup?t: Temperature?T & A: Tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy?T&C: Type and crossmatch?T&X: Type and crossmatch?t.d.d : Three times daily?t.d.s : To be taken three times daily?T1/2: Terminal serum half-life?T3: Thyroxine 3?T3: Triiodothyronine?T4: Thyroxine 4?T4: Thyroxine?TAB: Therapeutic abortion?tab.: Tablet?TAH: Total abdominal hysterectomy?tal. : Such?tal. dos.: Such doses?T-ALL: T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia?TASS: Toxic Anterior Segment Syndrome?TAT: Tetanus antitoxin?TAT: Thematic Apperception Test?TB: Tuberculosis?TBA: To be administered?TBA: To be arranged?TBG: Thyroxine-binding globulin?TBG: Thyrotropin-releaseing hormone?TBI: Total body irradiation?TBII: Thyrotropin binding inhibitory immunoglobulin?TBP: Thyroid-binding-proteins?TBSA: Total burn surface area?tbsp.: Tablespoonful?TBW: Total body water?TC: Total cholesterol?TCA: Tricyclic antidepressant?TCAs: Tricyclic antidepressants?TCD: Transcranial Doppler?TD: Tardive dyskinesia?Td: Tetanus and diphtheria?TDF: Testis-determining factor?TDM: Therapeutic drug monitoring?TDP: Thermal death point?TDT: Thermal death time?TEDS: Elastic stockings?TEE: Transesophageal echo?TEF: Thermic effect of food?TEM: Triethylenemelamine?TEN: Toxic epidermal necrolysis?TENS: Transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation?TEPA: Triethylene-phosphoramide?TERT: Telomerase reverse transcriptase?TESA: Testicular sperm extraction?TF: Tissue factor?TFPI: Tissue factor pathway inhibitor?TFT: Trifluorothymidine?TG: Thioguanine?TG: triglyceride?Tg: Thyroglobulin?TGF: Tubuloglomerular feedback?TGF-β: Transforming growth factor-beta?TGs: Triglycerides?TH: Thyroid hormone (thyroxine)?TH: Tyrosine hyroxylase?Th1: T helper type 1?THA: Tetrahydroaminoacridine?THC: Tetrahydrocannabinol?Ti: Tumer inducing?TIA: Transient ischemic attack?TIAs: Transient ischaemic attacks?TIBC: Total iron-binding capacity?tid: Three times a day?TIG: Tetanus immune globulin?TIMI: Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infraction?TIMP: Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases?TIPS: Transvenous intrahepatic portosystemic shunt?TKO: To keep open?TKVO: To keep vein open?T-LBL: T-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma?TLC: Total lung capacity?TLC: Tender loving care?TLD: Thermoluminescent dosimeter?TM: Tympanic membrane?Tmax: Time to Cmax?TMEP: Telangiectasia macularis eruptive perstans?TMJ: Temporomandibular joint?TMP: Trimethoprim?TMP-SMZ: Trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole?TMV: Tobacco mosaic virus?TNF: Tumor necrosis factor?TNF-α: Tumor necrosis factor-alpha?TNM: ?TOA: Tubo-ovarian abscess?TOCP: Triorthocresylphosphate?TOF: Tetralogy of Fallot?TOL: Trial of labor?TORCH: Toxoplasmosis, Other,Rubella virus, Cytomegalovirus, Herpes Simplex virus?t-PA: Tissue plasminogen activator?TPHA: T pallidum hemagglutination?TPM: Topiramate?TPMT: Thiopurine methyltransferase?TPN: Total parenteral nutrition?TPO: Thrombopoietin?TPR: Temperature, pulse, and respiration?TPV: Tipranavir?TR: Tricuspid regurgitation?tr.: tincture?TRAM flap: Trans-rectus abdominis muscle flap?TRAP: Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase?TRH: Thyrotropin-releasing hormone?Troch.: Lozenge?TRT: Tinnitus Retraining Therapy?TRUS: Transrectal ultrasound?TS: Tricuspid Stenosis?TSF: Triceps skinfold thickness?TSH: Thyroid-stimulating hormone?TSI: Thyroid stimulating immunoglobulin?tsp.: Teaspoonful?TSS: Toxic Shock Syndrome?TSST: Toxic shock syndrome toxin?TTA: Transtracheal aspiration?TTE: Transthoracic echocardiogram?TTF: Time to treatment failure?TTN: Transient tachypnea of the newborn?TTNA: Trans Thoracic needle aspiration?TTNB: ?TTO: To take out (to take home)?TTP: Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic purpura?TTP: Time to progression?TTTS: Twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome?TTV: TT virus?TUIP: Transurethral incision of the prostate?TULIP: Transurethral laser-induced prostatectomy?TUNA: ?TUR: Transurethral resection?TURB: Transurethral resection of the bladder?TURP: Transurethral resection of the prostate?tuss. : A cough?tuss. urg.: When the cough troubles?TV: Tidal volume?TVE: Transvaginal endoscopy?Tx: treatment?Tx.: Transfusion?TZD: Thiazolidinedione?U: Unit?U&E: Urea and electrolytes?u.a.: As before?u.d.: As directed?U.S.P.: United States Pharmacopia?U/A: Urinalysis?U/S: Ultrasound?UA: Unstable angina?UA: Uric acid?UA: Urinalysis?UBIC: Unsaturated iron binding capacity?UC: Ulcerative colitis?UCD: Urea cycle disorder?UCL: Ulnar Collateral Ligament?UCr: Urine creatinine concentration?UDCA: Ursodeoxycholic acid; ursodiol?UDP: Uridine diphosphate?UFH: Unfractionated heparin?UGI: Upper gastrointestinal?UHT: Ultra-high-temperature pasteurization?UIP: Usual interstitial pneumonitis?UL: ?UMN: Upper motor neuron?UNa: Urine sodium concentration?Ung: Ointment?UP: Urticaria pigmentosa?URI: Upper respiratory infection?URTI: Upper respiratory tract infection?US: Ultrasound?ut. dict.: As directed?ut. direct. : As directed?utend. : To be used?UTI: Urinary tract infection?UVA: Ultraviolet light?UVB: ?V: Volt?V/Q: Ventilation-Perfusion Ratio?V/Q: Ventilation-perfusion ratio?VAD: ?VaIN: Vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia?Val-HeFT: Valsartan in Heart Failure Trail?Vap.: Inhalation?VAQTA: ?Var: Varicella?VATS: Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery?VBAC: Vaginal birth after cesarean?VBG: Vertical banded gastroplasty?VC: Vital capacity?VCA: Virus capsid antigen?VCJD: Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease?VCUG: Voiding Cystourethrogram?VD: Veneral disease?VDRL: Venereal Disease Research Laboratory?VEDV: Ventricular end-diastolic volume?VEGF: Vascular endothelial growth factor?VEP: Visual Evoked Potential?VF: Ventricular fibrillation?VFD: Visual Field Defects?VHD: Valvular heart disease?Vi CPS: Vi capsular polysaccharide?VIN: Vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia?VIP: Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide?Vitrell.: Glass capsule?VKDB: Vitamin K deficiency bleeding?VLB: Vinblastine?VLBW: Very low birth weight?VLDL: Very low density lipoproteins?VMA: Vanillymandelic acid?VMS: Vasomotor symptoms?VOD: Veno-occlusive disease?VP: Venous pressure?VPC: Ventricular premature contraction?VRE: Vancomycin-resistant enterococcus?VS: Vital signs?VSD: Ventricular septal defect?VSP: Viridans streptococci?VT: Ventricular tachycardia?VT: Tidal volume?Vtach: Ventricular Tachycardia?VTE: Venous thromboembolism?VUR: Vesicoureteric reflux?VVC: Vulvovaginal candidiasis?VWD: Von Willebrand\'s Disease?VWF: Von Willebrand\'s Factor?VZIG: Varicella-zoster immune globulin?VZV: Varicella-zoster virus?WASO: ?WBC: White blood cell?WBC count: Leukocyte (white blood cell) count?WBS: Whole body scan?WCC: White cell count?WHEL: Woman\'s Healthy Easting and Living?WHO: World Health Organization?WNL: Within normal limits?WNV: West Nile Virus?WPW: Wolff Parkinson white (syndrome)?WR: Wassermann reaction?Wt: Weight?WTA: Willingness to accept?WTP: Willingness to pay?XIST: X-inactive-specific transcriptase?XR: X-ray?XRT: Radiation therapy?YAG: ?YMRS: Young-Mania Rating Scale?ZE: Zollinger Ellison (syndrome)?ZIFT: Zygote intrafallopian transfer?ZIG: Zoster immune globulin?α-1-AT: Α-1-Antitrypsin Deficiency?α-MSH: Alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone?β-hCG: β Human Chorionic Gonadotropin?Β-hCG: Beta subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin
Enter drug name:

3tc,3v,5-fluorouracil ebewe,a - viton,a power software,abilify,acc,acc long effervascent,accuzide,acetab,acetone bp,acic,acicone-s,acivir,aclasta,acnezoyl,acomplia,acretin,actavis siprox,actifed,actifed expectorant,activelle,actonel,actonel once a week,actos,actrapid novolet,acuitel fc,acular,acular ls,acupan,acyclovir,adalat,adalat la,adalat retard,adol,adol cold,adol extra,adol pediatric oral,adol pm,adol sinus,adrenaline bp,adrenaline bp+,adult meltus,advantan,advantan fatty,advil cold & sinus,advil ibuprofen,advil liqui-gels,aerious,aerius,a-gen 53n vaginal suppositories,aggrenox mr,agiolax,aicept,air,air lotion,airol vanishing,aironyl,akineton,aknemycin,akneroxide-5,aktiferrin-f,albalon liquifilm opthalmic,albenda,albumin human,albumin kabi iv,aldactone f.c.,aldara 5%,aldomet,alergoftal eye,alerid,alerkan,alfacort,algipan,alinal,alinamin - f odorless,alistim,alka - seltzer effervascent,allergetin,allergo - comod eye,allergo - comod nasal,allergyl,almond,almond bp,aloe vera pearls (herbal),alomide sterile opthalmic,alopexy cutaneous,aloxal,alphafen,alphagan opthalmic,alphagan p opthalmic,alveofact,alvityl,alvogyl,amaryl,ambisome iv,ambolar,amevive,amikin parenteral,aminess n,aminophylline,amirone,amlocan,amlocan forte,amlozek,amol,amol 6 plus,amol extra,amoxil,amoxil forte,ampiclox,ampiclox neonatal oral,amrizole,amrizole vaginal,amvaz,amydramine,amydramine pediatric,amydramine-ii,anafranil,anallerge - 4,anazol,ancopir,ancotil infusion,andriol testocaps,androcur,androgel,anexate,anexated \' roche \',angelic,anginova,angised,antacidin plus,antistine privine eye,anxetin,apcosule,apdyl - h cough,apidra prefilled,apiflox eye,apitropin eye,apo-allopurinol,apo-amilizide,apo-atenol,apo-captopril,apo-carbamazepine,apo-cimetidine,apo-doxy,apo-erythro,apo-ferrous glauconate,apo-gemfibrozil,apo-loratidine erythro,apo-napro na,apo-nifed,apo-ranitidine,apo-salbutamol,apresoline,aprovel,aqsia,arava,arcalion,arcoxia,aredia,ar-eze,arixtra,aromasin,artane,artelac sd eye,arthritis formula with devil\'s claw,artiz,asacol,asacol enema,asilone,asilone (peppermint flav.),asilone (spearmint flav.),asmafort,asmanex twisthaler,aspegic,aspegic 1000,aspegic 500,aspicot,aspinol,aspirin,aspirin migraine effervascent,aspirin protect ec,aspirin-c effervascent,asthalin,astonar,atacand,atacand plus,atarax,atehexal,athymil,ativan,atochol,atormin,atrican,atropine eye,atropine sulphate bp,atrovent,atrovent n metered,atrovent nabuliser,augmentin,augmentin es,augmentin infants,augmentin sr,auralgan ear,aureocort,aurimel,aurorix,avalox,avalox iv infus.,avandamet,avandaryl,avandia tiltab,avastin,avaxim,avaxim pediatric,aviral,avloclor,avodart,avomine,avonex im,axe brand universal,axid,ayuartis,ayuasmo,ayubes,ayucid,ayuderme,ayuges,ayulax,ayulite,ayumem,ayurhoids,ayurin plus,ayurol,ayurslim,ayusilma,ayuvigo,ayuvita forte,azaprin,azmacort,azomax,azomycin,azopt opthalmic,babylite rehyderation,bacimycin,bacimyxin,bactiflox lactabs,bactrim,bactrim forte,bactroban,bactroban nasal,balad,balanced salt,balkaprofen sr,baneocin,baraclude,barnetil,barnetil im,batrafen,baycuten,bcool,bebemol,beclazone 100 cfc free,becloforte,beconase nasal,becotide,becotide rotacaps,becovit,becozyme forte,beforte,begrocit effervascent,bekunis herbal,belara,bell\'s muscle,benelyn gf,benoquin,benzac ac,bepanthan,bepanthan plus,bepanthan roche,berotec,berroca ca & mag.eff.,berroca ca & mag.fc,betadine,betadine antiseptic,betadine dry powder,betadine gargle & mouth wash antiseptic,betadine scalp & skin,betadine skin,betadine surgical,betadine vaginal,betaferon subcut,betafucin skin,betagan liquifilm opthalmic,betahans,betaloc zok,betamet skin,betasept mouth wash/gargle,betasept vaginal,betaserc,betasone,betaten,betazol,betazol g,betnovate,betnovate c,betnovate n,betnovate scalp application,betolvex,betoptic sterile opthalmic,bevason,bevason n,bevit,bextra,bezalip retard,biafine wound dressing,bicarbonate,bidalkin vginal douche,bifril 30,biocarbon,biodroxil,biogest bladder control,biogest bladder tone,biogest menopause relief,biogest pms relief,bipreterax,bisolvon,bi-tildiem sr,blephamide liquifilmi opthalmic,blocotenol,blopress,bocatriol,bondronat concentration for infus.,bonfos,bonidon,bonisan,bonjela,bonviva,bonviva inj prefilled,borax bp,boric acid bp,boric bp,bospyrin,bostrombin,botox,brexin,brexin effervascent,bricanyl,bricanyl durules,brinerdin,bromelain-pos gastro resist,broncare,bronchicum n,bronchicum s,broncho - vaxom adult,broncho - vaxom children,bronchobos,broncholase,bronchopront,bronex oral`,bronkovent,brufen,brufen retard,bss sterile irrigating,bucaine,buccastem,budiar presrsd inh.,bufferin,burnaid,buscopan,buspar,buspar dividose,butacid,butalin,butalin solution for nebuliser,buventol,byetta,ca-c effervascent,ca-c vita effervascent,caduet,calamine,calamine bp,calcijex,calcium,calcium gluconate bp,calcium instant,calcium leucovorin,calcium sandoz forte effervascent,calciumfolinate ebewe,calgel teething,callimon effervascent,calpol,calpol six plus forte,calsyr,caltrate w/vitamin d,cal-vit,camphor bpc,canar,cancidas powder for iv infusion,candizole,canesten,canesten combi pack vaginal,capillary care with ginko biloba,capocard,capoten,capozide,capril,captace,captomex,captophar,carbamide,carboplatin ebewe,carbosan,cardiopine,cardol,cardura,carelox plus,carvidex,casodex,castor bp,cataflam,catalin opthalmic,catapress,caverject,ceclocare o,ceclor,ceclor mr,cedax,cefabac,cefadrox,cefatrexyl,cefaxone im/iv,cefix,cefodox,cefotax,cefotaxime im/iv (1+1),cefoxime,ceframed,cefrin,cefrom iv,ceftriaxone,ceftriaxone-tabuk im,ceftriaxone-tabuk iv,cefuzime,cefuzime im/iv,cefuzime oral,cefzil,cefzil oral,cegrovit effervascent,celebrex,celestone chronodose,cellcept,cellstim-h for men,cellstim-h for women,cellusive lubrican eye,cemaquin,cenovis celery herbal,cenovis echinacea complex,cenovis garlic horseradish & c complex,cenovis garlic with parsley,cenovis ginko plus,cenovis liver tonic/mild thistle,cenovis male formula,centrum adv.formula,centrum jr.w/exta vitamin c,cephalex,cephalex oral,cephracare,cerazette,cerepara,ceroxim,certican,certican dispersible,cetil,cetrotide,champix,chibroxine,children\'s advil,children\'s panadol(5-12 years),chinese star,chlorohistol,chloroquine,chooz anticid calcium suppliment,choragon,choriomon,cialis,cibacen,cicloral,cid,cidomycin adult,cidomycin pediatric,cidophage retard,ciflox,cifran,cilest,ciloprine ear,ciloxan,cipralex,cipram,ciprobay,ciprobay hc otic,ciprocin ear/eye,ciprodar fc,ciproflox,ciprofloxacin,ciprohexal,ciprolet,ciprolet rdy,ciprolon,cipromax,cipromax ear/eye,cipromax eye,cipromid,ciproxen,cirkulin valeran & hop,cirrus prolonged release,cisplatin ebewe,citrocid magnesium plus,citrolin,claforan im,claforan im & iv,claforan iv,clafotax im,clafotax iv,clamycin,clara,clarazole antidandruff,claridar,clarinase repetabs,claritin,claritin-d 24hrs extended release,claritt,claritt fc,clarosip,clenil,clexane,clindacin-c topical,clinoril,cliocort,clobate,clofast,clofen,clofen cr,clofen retard,clomid,clopixol,cloracef,clove bp,clovir,coamox - mepha,coamox - mepha coated,coaproval,coconut bp,codaphed,co-diovan,codipront,codis soluble,codopalm,codopalm expectorant,cogentin,coichicine,cold & flu relief with echinacea,coldifed,colestid,colfed,colfed dm,colircusi atropine eye,colircusi gentadexa eye/ear,colircusi gentamicin eye/ear,collomack,collyre bleu laiter,colmediten,colospasmin,colpermin,combivent m.dose inhaler,combivent unit dose,combivir,combizyme c,compound methyl salicylate,comtan,concavit,concerta,concor,confide,confortid,conigar,contiflo od,contratubax comp.,convulax,copegus,coracten spansules,cordarone,cordarone iv,co-renitec,corgard,corotenol cardotab,corsodyl mouth wash,cortaid topical,cortiderm,cortimax,cortiphenol h eye,cosopt eye,coumadin,coversyl,coxicam,cozaar,cresophene,crestor,crinone progestrone vaginal,crixan,crixan od,croma opthalmic,cromonal nasal,curam forte,curam oral,cusi viral,cusicrom eye,cusicrom nasal,cusicrom oftalmico,cusimolol,cusitrin paraciticide,cutivate,cyclo,cyclogest,cyclogyl,cyclosporine,cyclovax,cyklokapron,cyklokapron iv,cymbalta,cymevene,cyncholine,cynovit,cypro,cypro-bc,cystone,cyteal,dacrolux eye,daflon coated,daivobet,daivonex,daivonex scalp,daktacort,daktarin,daktarin oral,dalacin,dalacin c,dalacin t,dalacin t topical,daonil,daroxime,deca durabolin oily,decadron,decal b12,decalcit,decapeptyl cr syringe (1+1),decapeptyl cr syringe (3+3),decapeptyl solution for injection,decatylen,decongestyl,decozal nasal,decutan,deep freeze cold,deep relief,dekazol oral,deltarhinol nasal,dentinox infants colic,dentinox teething,depakin oral,depakine,depakine chrono sr,depo-medrol,depo-provera im,derm-ade,dermatin,dermizol,dermobactor for cutaneous application,dermofix,dermofucin,dermoplast aerosol,dermovate,dermovate scalp application,derm-t,desferal dry,detrusitol,detrusitol retard,dettol antiseptic,dettol personel care,dexalocal,dexalocal scalp application,dexalocal-f,dexanol,dexapanthenol,dexa-rhinaspray n,dexasalyl,dexasalyl scalp application,dexipan,dexsol oral,dextrokuf,dextrose 10 ml plastic,dextrose 20 ml plastic,dextrose 5 ml plastic,diabecon,dialon,diamicron,diamox,diamox parenteral,diane-35,dianeal,dianeal pd1,diaphage,diatab,diazepam,dicef,dicetel,diclo,diclo dispersible,diclofast,diclogesic,diclogesic retard,diclomax,diclo-na,dicynone,diet sweet,differin,difflam,difflam oral,diflucan,diflucan iv,digestif rennie,digestin,digestive formula,dilanyl,dilatrend,dilitus,dilzem,dilzem sr,dimet,dimetapp,diovan,dipehelin padiatric,dipentum,diphereline,dipivefrin hcl opthalmic,diprofos,diprogenta,diprolene,diprosalic,diprosalic lotion for scalp application,diprosone,disflatyl,disophrol,disophrol sa,dispril,ditropan,diuertic,divido dual release,dizinil,dizyst,doabetic,dogmatil,dogmatil forte,dolobene,dolobid,dopergin,dormicum,dorofen,dosin,dostinex,doxiproct,doxiproct plus,doxium,doxivenil,doxorubicin ebewe,dramamine,dramenex,dramylin,dramylin padiatric,drill,drill honey rosat,drill lemon mint,drill sugar free,droxaryl,droxil,dulcolax sc,dulsana,dulsana mild,dulsana with codeine,dumofer,dumoxin,dumozol,dumozol dental,dumozol iv plastic bags,dumozol vaginal,duofilm,duphalac,duphaston,dupromex,duracan,duracef,duracef oral,duradox,duratears,duratocin,duspatalin,duvimex,duxil,dyazide,dynastat,dynastat powder & solvent,dynastat powder for solution,dyspamet,ebeastel,ebixa,ebixa oral,ecavit,echinacea 5000,echinacin,echinacin madaus,ecocaine 2% with adrenaline,ecocaine dental,econochlor fenicol opthalmic,econopred plus opthalmic,efemoline eye,eferox,efexor,efexor xr,efferalgan,efferalgan effervascent,efferalgan infant,efferalgan young child,efudix,elantan long sr,eldepryl,eldopaque,eldopaque forte,eldoquin,elevit pronatal,elica,elica-m,elicasal,elidel,ellya woman formula,elmetacin,elocom,eloxatin iv,eltroxin,eludril mouth wash,emadine opthalmic,emicipro,emidol,emla,enam,enapril,enbrel,enbrel solution for injection pfs,engerix b pediatric vaccine,enhancin,eno fruit,eno fruit lemon,eno fruit orange,eno fruit regular,enterofuryl,entocort,entocort sr,envas,epanutin,epanutin ready mixed,epicephin im,epico effervascent salt,epicophylline,epicophylline adults,epicophylline infants,epimag effervascent,epinos fruit effervascent,epinos pineapple effervascent,epirax,epirazole,epotin,epsom bp,equoral oral,equoral soft gelatin,ercefuryl,ercefuryl oral,eromycin,eryderm,erythrocin,erythrocin f,erythrocin stearate,esidrex,essentiale forte,estaderm tts-100,estracomb tts,estring vaginal,estrofem,ethyl chloride tin,etopophos,etoposid ebewe for infusion,eucalyptus bp,eucarbon,eudyna,euglucon,eulexin,eumovate,eurax,euthyrox,eve care,eve care herbal,evion vitamin e,evista,evra transdermal,exacyl,exacyl solution for injection iv,excedexe,excedrin,exelon,exifine,exjade dispersible,exlution,exoderil,extraderm plus exfolient,extraneal p dialysis,exubera inhaler powder predispensed,exylin,exylin pediatric,eye care formula,e-z-cat,ezetrol,e-z-gas,e-z-hd,ezilax,ezipect,famocid,famodar,famvir,farcomethacin,farestone,fasigyn,fastum,fastum gel with dispenser,fatsolv,faverin,fawar fruit effervascent salt,fawar lemon effervascent salt,fefol spansule,fefol z spansule,feiba tim 4 immuno,feldene,feldene dispersible,femara,femoston,femoston conti,femulen,fenam forte,fenamic,fenbid spansules,fenistil,fenistil 24,fenistil coated,fer-in-sol,feroglobin,feromin oral,ferose,ferose chewable,ferose-f,ferriprox,ferro folic f,ferro-fol spansule,ferrosac iv,fertab-50,fevadol,fevadol extra,fevadol plus,fevadol sugar free,fexodine,fibercon,figuleen,figurin,finallerg,fitzecalm,fixit,flagentyl,flagyl,flagyl s,flamamacerium,flamazine,flatidyl,flatoril,flavaco nasal,flavaco otic,flavedrin mild nose,flavedrin nasal,flemoxin,flemoxin forte powder oral,flemoxin powder for oral,flemoxin solutab,fleximex,flixonase aq.nasal,flixotide,flixotide doskus inhaler powder,flixotide evohaler,flixotide inhaler,flogocid,floxacin,floxapen,flozak,flu care,fluanxol depot,fluanxol depot for,fluanxol dragees,fluarix adult vaccine prefilled,flucaril bi-floure mouth wash,flucocim,flucon sterile opthalmic,flucoric,fludara,fluditec expectorant for adults,fluditec infants & children,fludrex,flukit,flumed,flumizin vginal,fluorescite,fluoro-uracil,fluoxetine,flutin,fluxetyl,fluzyn,fml forte liquifilm opthalmic,fml liquifilm opthalmic,folicare,folicron,folicum,folitab,follegon im,foradil,foradil certihaler md dry powder inhaler,foradil m.aerosol,formit,forta b12,fortaneurin,fortapen omega,fortazar,forteo penfilled 3 ml,fortovase,fortum,fosavance,fostimon,fostimon(1+1),fostimon(10+10),fotil eye,fotil forte eye,fototar,foxime im,foxime im/iv,foxitin im/iv,fragmin,fraxiparine syringe,fraxodi solution sc,freederm antilice,fresh burst listerine antiseptic,froben,froben sr,fruital,frusemide bp,frusicort,fucidin,fucidin h,fucidin intertulle 10\30cm,fucidin leo,fucithalmic leo viscous eye,fudion,fulcin oral,fumafer,fusibact,fusibact b,fusiderm,fusix,futasole,futasone,fybogel orange sachet,gamalate b6,gamavate,gamimune n,garamycin 2ml,garamycin eye/ear,garasone eye/ear,garslim herbal,gasec gastrocaps,gastrex chewable,gastrobid continus,gastrofait,gaviscon advance oral(fennel flavor),gaviscon extra strength pepper mint,gelcosicone,gelofusine for infusion,gengraf,genotropin,genotropin powder(1+11),genso,gental,gentam,gentam eye/ear,gentamicin pos eye,gentian violet,gentian violet usp,geriaton forte soft gelatin,geriatric pharmaton,gericid,gevral protein-chocolate,gevral protein-orange,gincata,gincosan,ginsana,ginsana tonic with natural fruit concentrate,ginsavit,glaze,gliclazide,glimephan-1,glimephan-2,glimephan-3,glimephan-4,glivec,glivec hard,gloclav,glomox,glomox dispersible,glorion,glotac,glucobay,glucofer,glucolynamine,glucophage,glucose bp,glucovance,glustin,glycerin,glycerin bp,glycerin bp(glycerol),glycerin ichthynol pessaries,glycerin infantile,glycerol bp(glycerine),glycilax for adults,glycilax for children & babies,glycine irrigation,glynase,glyquin xm,glyzide,gold medal medicated,gonal f (1+1)ampoules,gonal f (10+10)ampoules,gonal f prefilled pen,gonal f(powder+solvent),gracial,grandoxy,granocyte,gripe baby water,grippo,grofenac,grofenac emulsion,gromazol,gupsone,gynera coated,gyno-daktarin,gyno-daktarin vaginal,gyno-flor e vaginal,gyno-mikazol,gyno-pevaryl depot,gyno-pevaryl vaginal,haem up liquid,hair grow,hair science for dandruff,haldol,harpagin,havrix 1440 adults vaccine,havrix 720 junior vaccine,healon r,hederal,hemoproct,hemovit,hepamerz granulated,hepa-merz infusion concentrated,hepa-pos,heparin,heparin sodium,hepsera,herbulax,hermesetas,hermesetas gold,hibor,hijuvan,himcolin,hinconil,hinconil powder for oral suspension,hirudoid,histac,histalix,histaloc,histan,histasin,histofen,histol,histop,humalog (insulin lispro),humalog mix 25 pen,humalog pen,human albumin immuno(insulin),human albumin(insulin),humatrope,humegon,humilin m3(30/70reg/nph mix) insulin,humilin nph hi 310 insulin,humilin r regular hi 210 insulin,humira prefilled syringe,hyalase,hycamtin iv,hydrcortisone sodium succinate,hydrcortisyl skin,hydrogen peroxide bp,hydrogen peroxide bp w/v,hygroton,hymox,hymox forte,hyopan,hyperium,hyperrho s/d syringe,hypromellose eye bps,hyzaar,ibu,ibu care,ibuclinrdy,ibugesic,ibuhexal retard,ichtammol,ichtamol bp,ichtamol usp,ideos chewable,iliadin,imavir,imavir eye,imdur,imigran,imigran nasal spray,imigran refill pack,imiprex,immunate,immunine,imodium,imox,imox dry,implanon,implortal,impugan,imu,imukin,imuran,indanorm,inderol,inderol la,indocid,indocid retard,indomel,inegrilin,inegy,infacol oral,infectoflam eye,infla-ban,inflaban sr,influvac vaccine,inhibace,inhibace plus,innohep anti-x,innohep anti-x prefilled,insidon,inspra,insulatard hm penfill(insulin),insulin actrapid human penfill,insulin insulatard human penfill,insulin monotard human,intal 5 inhaler,intal nebulizer,intard,intralipid parental,intron a,intron a pen,intron a solution,invirase,iodine tincture,iodine tincture bp,iodsept mouth wash gargle,ionil t shampoo,i-profen,iressa,ironorm,isilax complex,isilin,iso mac retard,iso mac retard spray,isodril,isodril sublingual,isodril tembids,isoket,isoket infusion,isoket retard sr,isoniazid,isoprinosine,isoptin dragees,isoptin iv,isoptin sr,isopto carbachol opthalmic,isopto carpine eye drops,isovist-240,isovist-300,isupril,itranox,itrin,ixel,ixime,januvia,jazofen,jedcoflacic,jogel o.,julmentin,julmentin forte,julphacef im/iv,julphamox,julphamox pediatric oral,julphapen,jusprin,kafosed,kalcipos,kalcipos d,kaletra,kaletra oral,kaopectate,kapect,kaptin,kaptin ii,kaptin ii caplets,kdiron,kdiron drops,keflex,keflex pulvules,kefzol,kemadrin,kenacomb,kenacort-a im,kenalog in orabase,kenazole shampoo,keppra,keppra oral,kerlone,ketek,ketesse,ketoderm,ketosterile,kiddi,klacid,klacid granules,klacid xl,klarfast,klaribac,klaricin,klarith,klavox,klavox dry,klean prep sachet,klerimed,kliogest,kofan instant,koflet cough,konakion chewable dragees,konakion m.m,konakion m.m pediatric,kordel\'s evening primrose oil,kordel\'s ginko,kordel\'s herbal laxative,kordel\'s herbal sleep,kordel\'s menolife(d & n),kordel\'s super exective b sr,kordel\'s zest for men,kufdrin expectorant,kulax,kytril,lactoline,lactolose,lady 4,lamictal,lamictal liquitabs,lamisil,lamisil dermagel,lamisil topical,lanetal,lanfast,lanibos,lanoxin,lanoxin pediatric/geriatric elixir,lantus optiset prefilled,lantus solution,lanzor,lao-dal,lapril,lariam,lasix,laxal,laxal effervascent salt,laxocodyl,laxolac,lecrolyn eye drops,ledercort,ledercort forte parenteral,legalon dragees,lempsip cold & flu lemon,powder for oral solution,lemsip flu 12hrs,lemsip max flu lemon,lemsip soar throat ta citrus flavor lozenges,leponex,lercadip,lescol,lescol xl,leucomax,leucovorin calcium,leukeran,levemir flexpen,levemir penfill,levitra,lexotanil,lexpec folic acid oral,librax,lidocaine,lignopanthen,lincocin,lioresal,lipanthyl,lipanthyl micronised,lipitor,lipofundin mct/lct,lipo-merz retard,lipostat,liquid gaviscon,liquid paraffin,liquid paraffin bp,liquifilm tears ocular lubricant,listerine antiseptic mouth wash,listerine coolmint mouth wash,liv 52 ds,liver formula with mild thistle,livial,livostin eye drops,livostin nasal spray,locabiotal aerosol spray,locacorten tar,locacorten vioform,locacorten vioform ear drops,locasalen,locatop,loceryl nail lacquer,locoid,locoid crelo topical emulsion,locoid lipocream,locoid scalp lotion,lodine,lodoz,lofral,logynon(triguilar),lohist,lomacholan-50 sc,lomaherpan,lomahypericum,lomal cough,lomax,lomexin ovules,lomexin scalp fluid,lomexin spray,lomexin t ovules,lomexin topical,lomexin vaginal,lomir,lomir sro,lomotil,longacef im,longacef iv,longifene,lopace,lopid,lopodium,lopram,lopressor,lopressor slow release divitabs,loracare,loraday,lorano,loratan,loratin,loraxine,loric,lorinase,lorine,losec iv infusion,losec mups,lotemax sterile opthalmic,lotense,lotriderm,lovir,lovrak,low-lip,lubrifilm eye,lucentis solution for injection,ludiomil,lumigan eye drops,lupron depot (1+1),lupron depot kit,lustyl,luveris,lyclear dermal,lyclear rinse,lyrica,lysobact,maalox plus suspension,maalox suspension,madecassol,madecassol neomycin hydrocort,mafepain,magalox suspension,maganesium sulfate(epsom salt),magnevist ampoules,malarex,malarone,maravalon,maravelon,mariagon,materna,maxalt,maxalt melt,maxidex opthalmic,maxidex opthalmic suspension,maxipime,maxipime powder for injection,maxiplex,maxitrol opthalmic,maxitrol opthalmic suspension,mebo herbal,mebzol,medacid,medacid chewable,medacid plus chewable,medamol caplets,medamol pediatric,med-folic acid,medijel gel dental gel,medinol over 6 suspension,medinol under 6 suspension,medrol a,medroxol,mefac,mefoxin,megace oral suspension,megamox,megamox suspension,megatril,meiact,melleril fc,mel-od,melrosum cough,melrosum s,memo soft gelatin,mencevax acwy vaccine(1+1),menogon,menopur pwdr.& solvent for,menosan,menthol & eucalyptus inhalation bp,menthol bp,mentholatum antiseptic lozenges,mentholatum balm,mentholatum deep heat rub,mentholatum deep heat spray,mentholax,mephaquin lactab,mepivastesin injection,merional(1+1),merional(10+10),mesporin im,mesporin iv,mesporin powder & solvent for iv infusion,mestinon,mestinon dragees,metaz,metfor,methergin,methotrexate,methotrexate ebewe,methotrexate ebewe p.solution,methycobal,methyldopa,metina oral vials,metocyl,metosil,metphage,meva,mevacor,miacalcic mrc,miacalcic nasal spray,micardis,micardis plus,miconaz oral,micoter,microgynon dragees,micronaze,midaflex,midarine,midopril,midrone extra,midroxil,midroxil dry suspension,migrain headache formula w.feverfew,migre-eze,mikacin i.m/i.v,mikostat,mikostat oral suspension,mikozol,minadex tonic orange flavour,minesse,minidiab,minihep leo,minipress,minirin,minirin melt,minirin spray,minisec,miniten,minocare,minocin,minonil,minulet,miranax,mirazol,mirazol oral,misotat intraocular solution,mitosyl,mivacron,mixavit,mixavit drops,mixavit m,mixtard 10 hm penfill,mixtard 10 novolet,mixtard 20 hm penfill,mixtard 20 novolet,mixtard 30 hm,mixtard 30 hm penfill,mixtard 30 novolet,mixtard 40 hm penfill,mixtard 40 novolet,mixtard 50 hm penfill,mixtard 50 novolet,mobiaid,mobic,mobilat,modalim,moduretic,molcer ear drops,momenta,monarpid hand antiseptic,monocef,monomack,mono-tildiem sr,motilium babies,motilium oral,motinil,motrin,movical powder for oral solution,moxal chewable,moxal ii suspension,moxal plus suspension,moxal suspension,moxicam,mucaine suspension,mucinum cascara,mucogel suspension,mucolase,mucolyte,mucopront,mucosol adult,mucosol pediatric,mucosolvan,mucosolvan liquid,mucum(sugarfree),multi sanostol,multibionta forte n,multitar mild shampoo,multitar plus regular shampoo,multitar plus shampoo,murine allergy eyes eye drops,murine clear eyes eye drops,murine eye drops,muscadol,muse urethral,myambutal,mycocort topical,mycoril,mycospor,mycostatin,mycostatin baby,mycostatin ready-mixed,mycoster,mycoster cutaneous,myco-synalar,mydriacyl opthalmic,myfortic,myleran,naaxia eye drops,naclof eye,nadine,nalidram,naphcon forte opthalmic,naphcon opthalmic,naphcon-a sterile opthalmic,naramig,nasacort aq.nasal spray,nasivin nasal drops adult,nasivin nasal drops pediatric,nasobec aq.nasal spray,nasonex aq.nasal spray,natozime,natrilix dragees,natrilix sr,natural citrus listerine,navelbine,navidine,navidoxin,navoban,nazine nasal drops,nebcin im & iv,negacef,negazole,negazole suspension,neo healar,neo maladine f.r,neoday,neodex eye/ear drops,neogyl,neo-meladine,neo-mercazole,neomol plus suspension,neomol suspension,neomox suspension,neopred-p e/ear drops,neo-rinactive intranasal nbl,neosporin eye drops,neotigason,neoventil,neoxicam,neoxidil,netromycin,netromycin pediatric,neulastim for injection pfs,neulin sa,neupogen,neupogen injection,neupogen prefilled,neurobion,neurocomb,neurontin,neurorubine,neurorubine forte lactab,nevanac opthalmic suspension,new b cool lozenges(sugar free),nexavar,nexium,nexium infusion,niaspan prolonged release,nicorette medicated chewing gum,nicotinell fruit chewing gum,nicotinell mint chewing gum,nicotinell mint lozenges,nicotinell tts-10,nicotinell tts-20,nicotinell tts-30,nifecard,nifluril,nif-ten,nilstat oral,nilstat topical,nimbex,nimotop s infusion,nisita mineral nasal,nitro mack retard,nitroderm tts-10,nitroderm tts-5,nitroject,nizoral,noctissin nasal spray,nolvadex,nolvadex-d,nootropil,nootropil ampoules,nootropil ampoules (iv/im),nootropil drinkable,nootropil fc,nootropil granules,nootropil iv infusion,nopain,nopain ds,nopil,nopil forte,nordette,nordiol-21,norditropin,norditropin nordilet,norflex,norflox,norgalax tubes enema,norgesic,normacol granules,normacol plus granules,noroxin,norprolac,norprolac(pink & blue),norvasc,norzol metronidazole suspension,nospasm,no-uric,novantrone,novesin eye drops,novirax w/w,novo mix penfill,novo rapid flexpen,novomix 30 flexpen,novonorm,novorapid hm penfill,nurofen cold & flu,nurofen liquid,nurofen oral suspension for children,nurse harvey\'s gripe mixture,nu-seals 75 ec,nutrineal pd 4 amino acid,nuvaring vaginal ring,nylol eye drops,nystalocal,octostim,ocubrax eye drops,ocufen liquifilm opthalmic,oculosan eye,oculotect eye gel,ocuvite,oenergy,oflox opthalmic,ofloxacin,oftal.cusi erythrocin eye,oftalar eye drops,oftalmolosa cusi atropin eye,oftalmolosa cusi cholmaphenicol eye,oftalmolosa cusi gentamicin eye,oftalmotrim eye drops,oftan timolol eye drops,oilatum emollient,okacin eye drops,olbetam,olfen,olfen dispersible,olfen-100 rectocaps,olfen-25 lactab,olfen-75,olfen-75 sr depotabs,olive oil bp,omace,omaceph,omacid chewable,omacid suspension,omacillin,omacillin drops,omacip,omacor soft,omafen,omcet,omedar,omeprex,omezyn,omiz,omnic,omnicef,omnicef suspension,omnipaque,omniscan iv,omol,omol drops,omol extra,omvil,one-alpha,one-alpha drops,one-alpha leo,opizole,opizole-b,oprazole,optichlor opthalmic suspension,opticin sterile opthalmic,opticrom eye drops,optidex t sterile opthalmic,optiflox opthalmic,optifresh opthalmic,optimen herculez,optimen naturmax,optimen testeromax,optimol opthalmic,optizolin opthalmic,optrex eye drops,optrex eye lotion,oral rehydration salt,oralite orange flavour,orasept mouth wash,orbenin,orcinol,orelox oral suspension,orgalutran solution for injection,orgametril,orofar gelsolets lozenges,orofar solution with lidocaine,orofar spray with lidocaine,orthocam,orthocam dt,oruvail cr,os-cal,os-cal-d,osipect,ospamox,ospamox f.c,ospamox oral suspension,ospamox powder for oral suspension,ospen granules for oral suspension,ospexin,ospexin granules for oral suspension,osteocare,otaci liquorice cough pastilles,otaci salvia pastilles,otocalm ear drops,otocol ear drops,otosporin ear drops,otrinol r.,otrivin menthol md nasal spray,otrivin metered dose spray,otrivin nasal drops,otrivin nasal 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Everything About ECZEMA

by:Pharmacist: Musaed Alatia
Alsabah Hospital

Eczema is the general term for many types skin inflammations, according to the American Academy of Dermatology. That inflammation tends to be very itchy and the patient will scratch the area. That will then increase the itchiness of the area and the so-called itch-scratch cycle begins.

Eczema Facts
  1. Eczema is an inflammatory skin condition
  2. Eczema is not contagious
  3. Eczema is red and itchy
  4. Eczema has no cure
  5. Eczema is often associated with asthma and hay fever
  6. Eczema runs in families and is therefore hereditary
  7. Eczema affects both children and adults
  8. Eczema is equally common in males and females
  9. Eczema is often outgrown by the age of 7 years
Alternative Names:
Infantile eczema; Atopic eczema; Dermatitis - atopic

1. Causes, incidence, and risk factors:
    Eczema is most common in infants, and at least half of those cases clear by age 36 months. In adults, it is generally a
chronic or recurring condition. A hypersensitivity reaction (similar to an allergy) occurs in the skin, causing chronic inflammation. The inflammation causes the skin to become itchy and scaly. Chronic irritation and scratching can cause the skin to thicken and become leathery-textured.

Exposure to environmental irritants can worsen symptoms, as can dryness of the skin, exposure to water, temperature changes, and stress.

What causes eczema_#063_
    The cause of eczema depends on what type you have, read below for more information on the different types. However, in adults, eczema can be triggered off by certain chemicals so care may need to be taken in some jobs. Areas of work with a high risk include: hairdressing, nursing, cleaning, engineering, animal handling or plastering.

Are there any complications with eczema_#063_
    The most important thing to do if you have eczema is to keep the skin moisturised to prevent it from drying out. If the skin is dry it becomes a good home for the bacteria Staphylococcus aureus. If the eczema becomes infected with Staphylococcus the skin may become very red, weep a lot and produce yellowish dry crusts. You may also notice blisters filled with a yellow pus. If this condition develops it will need to be treated with antibiotics, such as penicillin.

    One of the most serious complications with atopic eczema is eczema herpeticum, this develops when eczema becomes infected with the herpes virus. Eczema herpeticum is a serious condition and medical help must be sought. The symptoms of eczema herpeticum may include a high temperature, an extensive rash with small skin blisters filled with yellow pus and you may generally feel unwell. The rash can cover the whole of the skin surface. Eczema herpeticum can occur when anyone with eczema, especially if it is sore and open has skin to skin contact with someone who has active facial ( cold sores) or genital herpes. Eczema herpeticum is treated with oral anti-virus antibiotics. However, considering how common the herpes simplex virus and atopic eczema are, this condition is fortunately quite rare.

    If at any time the skin is very sore, weepy or you develop small blisters with pus then the eczema may have become infected, you should visit your doctor for advice and treatment.

What tests will I have to diagnose eczema_#063_
    Eczema is usually diagnosed from the appearance of the skin alone. However, a test may be needed to decide what allergen is causing the skin problems. You can read more about the types of tests available in the section "How are allergies diagnosed_#063_".

2. What’s the difference between eczema and atopic dermatitis_#063_
    Eczema is a general term encompassing various inflamed skin conditions. One of the most common forms of eczema is
atopic dermatitis (or "atopic eczema"). Approximately 10 percent to 20 percent of the world population is affected by this chronic, relapsing, and very itchy rash at some point during childhood. Fortunately, many children with eczema find that the disease clears and often disappears with age.

    In general, atopic dermatitis will come and go, often based on external factors. Although its cause is unknown, the condition appears to be an abnormal response of the body’s
immune system . In people with eczema, the inflammatory response to irritating substances is overactive, causing itching and scratching. Eczema is not contagious and, like many diseases, currently cannot be cured. However, for most patients the condition may be managed well with treatment and avoidance of triggers.

    There are many forms of eczema. Some forms are not specific and cannot be clearly categorized although, most cases fit into one of the following categories:
  1. Atopic Eczema is the most persistent kind of eczema, and is often the hardest kind to treat. It is also the most common form of eczema, and it usually develops in the first year of a baby’s life. The most frequent sites for atopic eczema, or atopic dermatitis as it is sometimes referred to, are the elbows, the knees, the neck, and around the eyes. Atopic Eczema usually disappears as a child grows older, but sometimes it does persist through adulthood.
    atopic eczema
  2. Nummular Eczema is characterized by its round patches of discolored dry skin. These patches can occur anywhere and are occasionally hard to treat, requiring intralesional corticoids.
    nummular eczema
  3. Asteatotic Eczema is the result of extremely dry skin. This form of eczema occurs most frequently on the arms and legs.
    Asteatotic eczema
  4. Eyelid eczema is a form of eczema that occurs on the eyelids often causing the eyelids to swell, and in extreme cases become swollen shut. Eyelid eczema can be made worse by use of eye cosmetics, facial cosmetics, and harsh soaps.
    Eyelid eczema
  5. Contact Eczema is divided into two separate types, allergic and irritant. Allergic contact eczema is caused by direct contact with a substance that causes an allergic reaction. The trigger substances can be everyday items such as rubber, glue, and nickel found in some costume jewelry. Irritant contact eczema is caused by things that irritate the skin such as detergents and disinfectants. Contact eczema is also called contact dermatitis.
    Contact eczema
  6. Seborrhoeic Eczema effects the scalp and eyebrows and may spread to other parts of the body where there is hair. Seborrhoeic eczema often effects babies and is nicknamed cradle cap.
    Seborrhoeic eczema
4. What does eczema look and feel like_#063_
    Although eczema may look different from person to person, it is most often characterized by dry, red, extremely itchy patches on the skin. Eczema is sometimes referred to as "the itch that rashes," since the itch, when scratched, results in the appearance of the rash.

    Eczema can occur on just about any part of the body; however, in infants, eczema typically occurs on the forehead, cheeks, forearms, legs, scalp, and neck. In children and adults, eczema typically occurs on the face, neck, and the insides of the elbows, knees, and ankles. In some people, eczema may "bubble up" and ooze. In others, the condition may appear more scaly, dry, and red.
Chronic scratching causes the skin to take on a leathery texture because the skin has thickened (lichenification) .

5.What makes patients with eczema itch_#063_
    Many substances have been identified as itch "triggers" in patients with eczema, and triggers are not the same for every person. Many times it is difficult to identify the exact trigger that causes a
flare-up . For some, it seems that rough or coarse materials coming into contact with the skin causes itchiness. For others, feeling too hot and/or sweating will cause an outbreak. Other people find that certain soaps, detergents, disinfectants, contact with juices from fresh fruits and meats, dust mites, and animal saliva and dander’s may trigger itching. Upper respiratory infections (caused by viruses) may also be triggers. Stress can also sometimes aggravate an existing flare-up.

6. Who gets eczema_#063_
    Eczema occurs in both children and adults, but usually appears during infancy. Although there is no known cause for the disease, it often affects people with a family history of allergies.

    Those who are genetically predisposed and then exposed to environmental triggers may develop eczema. Many people who have eczema also suffer from
allergic rhinitis (hay fever) and asthma , or have family members who do.

7. How common is eczema_#063_
    The National Institutes of Health estimates that 15 million people in the United States have some form of eczema. About 10 percent to 20 percent of all infants have eczema; however, in nearly half of these children, the disease will improve greatly by the time they are between five and 15 years of age. Others will have some form of the disease throughout their lives.

8. How can eczema be prevented_#063_
    Eczema outbreaks can usually be avoided with some simple precautions. The following suggestions may help to reduce the severity and frequency of flare-ups:
  • Moisturize frequently
  • Avoid sudden changes in temperature or humidity
  • Avoid sweating or overheating
  • Reduce stress
  • Avoid scratchy materials (e.g., wool or other irritants )
  • Avoid harsh soaps, detergents, and solvents
  • Avoid environmental factors that trigger allergies (e.g., pollens, molds, mites, and animal dander)
  • Be aware of any foods that may cause an outbreak and avoid those foods
Eczema is not a single distinct disease, but rather any skin disease in which inflammation is the key feature. The different causes result in different patterns of symptoms, which have been given distinct names, such as varicose eczema. Dermatitis and eczema are interchangeable terms – they mean the same thing. But previously, the term eczema was used only for skin inflammation with an internal underlying cause (as in ‘atopic eczema’), and dermatitis for skin inflammation caused by a reaction to the environment (as in ‘irritant contact dermatitis’).

9. Eczema Symptoms
    The word
eczema comes from the Greek language, and it means to "BOIL OVER". It is a description that sums up only too vividly the classic eczema symptoms that are associated with the disease.

    Eczema symptoms may begin in
infancy and occur on and off through out one’s lifetime. The classic eczema symptoms are itchiness, redness, dryness and scaling of the skin. However, there are also many other eczema symptoms that are not obviously related to the skin.

    Symptoms such as thirst caused by loss of fluid from the skins tissues, over sensitivity to
cold and heat , and the prevalence of other allergic conditions such as asthma and hay fever, are all types of eczema symptoms that many people experience.

    Following is a brief list of the most common eczema symptoms you may experience.
  • Skin inflammation – swelling of the skins surface and the underlying tissues of the skin.
  • Redness – caused by widening of the blood vessels in the skin and associated increase in blood flow to the affected area.
  • Itching – can vary in intensity and leads to scratching – inflammation and worst case – infection.
  • Dry, scaly skin – depends on the individuals skin type, but dry skin can often predispose a person to the development of eczema.
  • Pale skin and loss of pigmentation – due to reduced blood flow caused by eczema’s disruptive effect on the skin’s circulation.
  • Thick leathery skin – overtime the skin can become thicker due to the constant scratching. The skin tries to protect itself from this by producing more keratin ( the tough protective protein found in skin cells).
     Eczema symptoms can be wide ranging, but you don’t have to let the condition rule your life – you just have to learn how to manage it. It may seem like a nuisance to always have to think about your skin, but by adopting a good skin care routine into your daily life, it will eventually become no more of a burden than cleaning your teeth or brushing your hair.

10. Eczema: Tips on How to Care for Your Skin
Limit your contact with things that can irritate your skin.
    Some things that may irritate your skin include household cleansers, detergents, aftershave lotions, soap, gasoline, turpentine and other solvents. Try to avoid contact with things that make you break out with eczema. Because soaps and wetness can cause skin irritation, wash your hands only when necessary, especially if you have eczema on your hands. Be sure to dry your hands completely after you wash them.

Wear gloves to protect the skin on your hands.
    Wear vinyl or plastic gloves for work that requires you to have your hands in water. Also, wear gloves when your hands will be exposed to anything that can irritate your skin. Wear cotton gloves under plastic gloves to soak up sweat from your hands. Take occasional breaks and remove your gloves to prevent a buildup of sweat inside your gloves.
    Wear gloves when you go outside during the winter. Cold air and low humidity can dry your skin, and dryness can make your eczema worse.

Wear clothes made of cotton or a cotton blend.
    Wool and some synthetic fabrics can irritate your skin. Most people with sensitive skin feel better in clothes made of cotton or a cotton blend.

Care for your skin in the bath or shower.
    Bathe only with a mild soap, such as Dove, Basis or Oil of Olay. Use a small amount of soap when bathing. Keep the water temperature cool or warm, not hot. Soaking in the tub for a short time can be good for your skin because the skin's outer layer can absorb water and become less dry. Soak for 15 to 20 minutes. Then use a soft towel to pat your skin dry without rubbing. Immediately after drying, apply a moisturizer to your skin. This helps seal in the moisture.

Use the medicine your doctor has prescribed for you.
    When your eczema flares up (gets worse), use the medicine prescribed by your doctor. Use it right after bathing. Medicine used to treat eczema is usually a steroid medicine that you rub on your skin. Follow your doctor's directions for using this medicine or check the label for proper use. Call your doctor if your skin does not get better after 3 weeks of using the medicine.

     Use a moisturizer on your skin every day.
    Moisturizers help keep your skin soft and flexible. They prevent skin cracks. A plain moisturizer is best. Avoid moisturizers with fragrances (perfume) and a lot of extra ingredients. A good, cheap moisturizer is plain petroleum jelly (such as Vaseline). Use moisturizers that are more greasy than creamy, because creams usually have more preservatives in them.
    Regular use of a moisturizer can help prevent the dry skin that is common in winter.

Avoid scratching or rubbing the itchy area.
    Try not to scratch the irritated area on your skin even if it itches. Scratching can break the skin. Bacteria can enter these breaks and cause infection.

Avoid getting too hot and sweaty.
    Too much heat and sweat can make your skin more irritated and itchy. Try to avoid activities that make you hot and sweaty.

Learn how to manage stress in your life.
    Eczema can flare up when you are under stress. Learn how to recognize and cope with stress. Stress reduction techniques can help. Changing your activities to reduce daily stress can also be helpful.

Continue skin care even after your skin has healed.
    The area where you had the eczema may easily get irritated again, so it needs special care. Continue to follow the tips in this handout even after your skin has healed.

  1. Diet:
    Institute general allergy prevention measures in high allergy risk newborns. These include avoidance of parental smoking during pregnancy and after birth and breast feeding until at least 6 months of age. Common allergy-provoking foods such as milk, eggs, fish, peanuts, wheat and soya should be avoided in the breast feeding mother's daily diet.
    Avoidance of solid foods in babies up to 6 months of age, followed by the careful introduction of the potential allergy- provoking foods such as cows' milk, wheat and peanut extract at 12 months, and eggs and fish only being introduced after 18 months.
    About 10% of infantile eczema is food allergy related and food colorants and additives can also aggravate eczema in older children. In addition adverse reactions to citrus fruit, tomatoes, pineapples and Marmite, are common in patients with eczema.
  2. Clothing:
    Children should avoid hot humid and cold dry weather, excessive sweating, woolen or synthetic clothing close to the skin and perfumed soaps. Cotton underwear, clothing and bed-linen are recommended.
  3. Detergents:
    Non-biological washing powders such as Sunlight and Skip should be used instead of enzyme enriched Punch, Biotex, Surf or Omo. Bubble baths, household antiseptics and medicated soaps are best avoided. Swimming pool chlorine may also irritate and dry out the skin. Local household skin irritants include wool, mohair, nylon and feathers. House dust mites as well as dog and cat skin flakes may aggravate eczema.
  4. Bath:
    Bath water should be lukewarm and moisturing emollients must be applied to the skin within 3 minutes of patting the skin dry (never rub the skin dry). If the non-perfumed soaps such as Pears, Dove or Neutragena irritate the skin then the use of aqueous cream, Aquabar or Cetaphil lotion are recommended.
  5. In Bed:
    As much skin as possible should be covered with non-allergenic light weight cotton clothing, taking care not to overdress or overheat the child. Cotton nigh gloves as well as neatly clipped finger nails will reduce scratching. Sometimes elbow splints need to be applied to stop intractable scratching at night.
  6. Immunizations:
    Routine childhood immunizations should be given. Consult your doctor if you have any concerns about these immunizations.
  7. Future Career:
    Young adults should decide on a career that is less likely to expose them to irritant chemicals and should probably avoid nursing, hairdressing, catering, motor mechanics or the building industry. Protective gloves with cotton inner-linings will help prevent irritant contact dermatitis that is so very common in eczema sufferers.
     12. TREATMENT
Modern medical treatment of eczema is aimed at reducing symptoms, especially inflammation, dryness, and itching.
  1. Corticosteroids
    Topical corticosteroids are used on the skin to reduce the inflammation and itching associated with eczema. They come in various strengths from mild to super potent. The more potent the corticosteroid, the smaller the area of skin to which it can be applied, and the less frequently it can be used. Generally only mild topical medications should be used on the face and other sensitive skin areas.
    Sometimes oral steroids are used for short periods of time to treat eczema, but they are not prescribed often because of their serious side effects. Also, stopping the oral steroids can cause even more severe flare-ups of the condition.
    Side Effects
    • increased redness of the skin
    • blood vessels appearing through the skin
    • thinning of the skin
    • stretch marks
    • tolerance to the medication, which makes further applications less effective
  2. Tar Treatment
    Tar-based treatments are used to reduce itching and inflammation. They may be purchased either over-the-counter or by prescription. Prescription tar treatments are more potent than over-the-counter products.
    Side Effects
    • extreme sensitivity to light
    • skin irritation
    • discoloration of the skin
    • can cause allergies to develop
  3. UVB Phototherapy
    Ultraviolet light is used to treat the symptoms of eczema when the condition is chronic or when other treatments have not worked. Treatments are usually supervised by a medical professional, although occasionally they can be done at home. It is very important not to overexpose the skin to ultraviolet light as it can be extremely damaging.
    Side Effects
    • skin burns
    • cold sores
    • premature aging of the skin
    • skin cancer
  4. PUVA
    PUVA is a combination of the drug Psoralen with ultraviolet A light. Psoralen increases the skin's sensitivity to long-wave ultra-violet rays, and is used in an attempt to make UVA treatment more effective. The procedure is always performed under the supervision of a medical professional, as overexposure to the ultraviolet rays can be extremely damaging to the skin.
    Side Effects
    • nausea
    • headache
    • fatigue
    • skin burns
    • premature aging of the skin
    • skin cancer
  5. Systemic antihistamines
    Systemic antihistamines, such as chlorpheniramine, hydroxyzine, and promethazine are prescribed to reduce itching. Antihistam ines creams should not be used to treat eczema.
    Side Effects
    • drowsiness
    • blurred vision
    • ringing in the ears
    • abdominal pain
  6. Systemic antibiotics
    Systemic antibiotics such as cloxacillin are taken internally to reduce the presence of bacteria on the skin. These bacteria can cause irritation and introduce infection to eczema. Topical antibiotics should not be used because they are largely ineffective and can cause allergies.
    Side Effects
    • diarrhea
    • headache
    • irregular breathing
    • joint pain
    • lightheadedness
     13. The Role of The Pharmacist:
    The pharmacist has an important role in helping to manage a patient’s eczema.
Help should include discussion with the patient on the following issues:
  • How and where to find more help or a better understanding of the disease, including self-help groups.
  • Optimum use of emollients.
  • Prevention of over and under of topical steroids.
  • Advising the patient to make notes of the amount of emollients and steroids prescribed and used.
  • Use of bandages which should form part of the wet-wrap procedures or simply to help minimize daubing of clothes with greasy topical therapies.
  • Dose adjustment of antihistamine (obviously through collaboration with the physician) to control the itch without the patient becoming too drowsy.

  1. Eczema (atopic dermatitis) Medline plus, medical Encyclopedia .
  2. Eczema, May 2001, BUPA (the personal health service).
  3. Eczema and Dermatitis, 2002 Dermik Laboratories.
  4. What is Eczema_#063_, Eczema Net, American Academy of Dermatology 2000.
  5. Eczema, Dr. Adrian Morris 1993, Allergy Society of South Africa.