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CD: Crohn\'s disease?(R): Right?/d: Per day?1/ SCr: Inverse of serum creatinine?1/2NS: Half-strength normal saline?3D CRT: Three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy?3TC: Lamivudine?5-ASA: 5-aminosalicylic acid?5-FCFLUCYTOSINE : ?5-FU: 5-fluorouracil?5-FU: 5-Fluorouracil?5-FU/LV: 5-fluorouracil and leucovorin?5-HT: 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin)?5-PAM: Pralidoxime?A & E: Accident and emergency?A & O: Alert and oriented?A & P: Anterior and posterior?A & P: Auscultation and percussion?A & W: Alive and well?A&E: Accident and emergency?a.d.: Right ear?a.m. : Morning?a.m.: Before noon?a.s.: Left ear?a.u. : Each ear?A/G: Albumin/globulin ratio?AA: Alcoholics Anonymous?AA: Anaplastic astrocytoma?aa: Of each?AAA: Abdominal aortic aneurysm?AAAAA: Aphasia, agnosia, apraxia, agraphia, and alex?Ab: Abortion?Ab: antibody?ABC: Airway, breathing, circulation?ABC: ATP-binding cassette?abd: Abdomen?abd: abdominal?abd: abduction?ABE: Acute bacterial endocarditis?ABG: Arterial blood gas?ABS: Acute Bacterial Sinusitis?ABT378: Lopinavir?ABVD: Adriamycin, bleomycin, vincristine, and dacarbazine?ac: Before meals?AC: Abdominal circumference?AC: Adriamycin [doxorubicin] plus cyclophosphamide?AC: anthracycline and cyclophosphamide?ACA: Anterior cerebral artery?ACAT: Acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase?ACBS: Aortocoronary bypass surgery?ACE: Angiotensin-converting enzyme?Ach: Acetylcholine?Acid phos.: Acid phosphatase?ACL: Anterior Cruciate Ligament?ACLS: Advanced Cardiac Life?ACS: Acute Coronary Syndrome?ACT: Artemisinin-based combination therapy?ACTH: Adrenocorticotropic hormone?AD: Alzheimer disease?AD: Autosomal dominant?ad: Up to?ad lib: As much as desired?ADA: Adenosine deaminase?ADC: AIDS dementia complex?ADCC: Antibody-depent cellular cytotoxicity?ADD: Attention deficit disorder?ADEPT: Adalimumab Effectiveness in Psoriatic Arthritis Trail?ADH: Antidiuretic hormone?ADH: Adjusted-dose subcutaneous heparin?ADH: Antidiuretic hormone (vasopressin)?ADHD: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder?ADHF: Acute decompensate heart failure?ADL: Activities of daily living?ADME: Absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion?ADP: Adenosine diphosphate?ADPW: Adjusted-dose perioperative warfarin?ADR: Adverse drug reaction?ADT : Alternate-day therapy?ADU: Acute duodenal ulcer?AEC: Atomic Energy Commission?AED: Antiepileptic drug?AED: Automated external defibrillator?AEs: Adverse Events?AEs: Adverse experiences?AF: Atrial fibrillation?AFB: Acid-fast bacillus?aFGF: Acidic fibroblast growth factors?AFI: Amniotic fluid index?Afib: Atrial Fibrillation?AFP: Alpha fetoprotein?AG: Anion Gap?Ag: antigen?AGL: Acute granulocytic leukaemia?AGN: Acute glomerulonephritis?AGUS: Atypical glandular cells of undetermined significance?aGVHD: acute graft-versus-host disease?aGVHDAI: acute GVHD activity Index?AHA: Autoimmune haemolytic amaemia?AHD: Autoimmune harmolytic disease?AI: Adequate intake?AICD: Automated Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator?AIDS: Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome?AIMS: Abnormal involuntary movement scale?AIMS: Alberta Infant Motor Scale?AIP: Acute interstitial pneumonitis?AIPs: Aldosterone-induced proteins?AIS: Adenocarcinoma in situ?AK: Above knee?AL: amyloidosis?ALA: Aminolaevulinic acid?ALD: Alcoholic liver disease?ALG: Antilymphocyte globulin?ALL: Acute lymphoblastic leukemia?ALLHAT: Antihypertensive Lipid Lowering Heart Attack Trail?ALT: Alanine aminotransferase?alt.: Alternate?ALTE: Apparent Life-Threatening Event?AMA: Against medical advice?AMD: Age-related macular degeneration?AMI: Acute Myocardial Infraction?AML: Acute myelogenous leukemia?AML: Acute myeloid leukemia?AMP: Adenosine monophosphate?amp: ampule?AMS: Acute Mountain Sickness?AN: Acanthosis nigricans?ANA: Antinuclear antibody?ANC: Absolute neutrophil count?ANCA: Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody?ANCAs: Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies?ANF: Antinuclear factor?ANP: Atrial natriuretic peptide?ANP: Arterial natriuretic peptide?ante: before?Anti-HAV: Antibody to hepatitis A?Anti-HCV: Antibodies to HCV?AOB: Alcohol on breath?AODM: Adult-onset diabetes mellitus?AOM: Acute otitis media?AP: Alkaline phosphatase?AP: Angina pectoris?AP: antepartum?AP: Anterior pituitary?AP: Anterioposterior?AP: Aortic pressure?AP: Apical pulse?AP: appendectomy?AP: Artificial pneumothorax?APA: Anti-phospholipid (syndrome)?APB: Atrial premature beat?APC: Activated protein C?APC: Adenomatous polyposis coli?APC: Atrial premature contraction?APE: Acute psychiatric emergency?APECED: Autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy?Apo: Apolipoprotein?APP: Amyloid precursor protein?applic.: to be applied?APRICOT : AIDS Pegasys Ribavirin International CO-infection Trial?APSAC: Anisolyated plasminogen streptokinase activator complex?APT: Alum-precipitated toxoid?aPTT: Activated partial thromboplastin time?APTT: Activated partial thromboplastin time?aq.: water?AR: Androgen Receptor?AR: Aortic regurgitation?AR: Apical/radial (pulse)?AR: Autosomal recessive?AR: Average Requirment?ARB: Angiotensin receptor blocker?ARC: AIDS-related complex?ARDS: Acute respiratory distress syndrome?ARF: Acute renal failure?AROM: Artificial rupture of membrane?AS: Aortic stenosis?AS: Ankylosing spondylitis?AS: arteriosclerosis?ASA: Acetylsalicylic acid?ASAP: As Soon As Possible?AS-attack: Adam-Strokes attack?ASB: Asymptomatic bacteriuria?ASCA: Anti-saccharomyces cerevisiae antibody?ASC-H: Atypical squamous cells, cannot exclude HSIL?ASCT: Autologous stem cell transplantation?ASCUS: Atypical squamous cells of unknown significance?ASCVD: Arteriosclerotic cardiovascular disease?ASD: Atrial septal defect?ASHD: Arteriosclerotic heart disease?ASLO titre: Antistreptolysin-O titre?ASM: Aggressive system mastocytosis?ASMA: Anti-Smooth Muscle Antibody?ASO: Antistreptolysin?ASOT: Antistreptolysin O titer?AST: Aspartate aminotransferase?AT III: Antithrombine III?ATBC: Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta carotene?ATFL: Anterior Talo-Fibular Ligament?ATG: Antithymocyte globulin?ATL: Adult T cell lymphoma?ATL: Adult T cell leukemia?ATLS: Advanced Trauma Life Support?ATN: Acute tubular necrosis?ATP: Adenosine triphosphate?AUC : Area under the curve?aurist.: Ear drops?AutoPap: Computer-assisted cytology interpretation system?AV: Aortic valve?AV: Atrioventricular?A-V: Arteriovenous?AVERT: Atorvastatin Versus Revascularization treatment?AVID: ?AVM: Arteriovenous Malformation?AVNRT: AV nodal reentry tachycardia?AVP: Arginine vasopressin?AVR: Aortic valve replacement?AVR: Augmented V lead, right arm (ECG)?AVRT: ?AVS: Arteriovenous shunt?AWS: Alcohol withdrawal syndrome?AXR: Abdominal X ray?AZF: Azoospermia factor genes?AZT: Azidothymidine (zidovudine)?B & O: Belladonna and opium?B Bx.: Breast biopsy?b. : twice?b.d. : Twice daily?b.i.d. : Twice a day?BaE: Barium enema?BAL: Bronchoalveolar lavage?BAL: Dimercaprol?BASDAI: Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index?BBB: Bundle branch block?BBB: Blood-brain barrier?BBBB: Bilateral bundle branch block (ECG)?BCAA: Branched-chain amino acid?BCAR: Biopsy-confirmed acute rejection?BCG: Bacillus Calmette-Guerin ?BCPT: Breast Cancer Prevention Trail?BDI: Beck Depression Inventory?BDNF: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor?BDZ: Benzodiazepine(s)?BE : Barium enema; base excess?BEE: Basal energy expenditure?bFGF: basic fibroblast growth factors?BG: Blood glucose?BHS: Beta-hemolytic streptococci?BIA: Bioelectrical impedence analysis?Bili: Bilirubin?BiPAP: Bilevel Positive Airway Pressure?BJ protein: Bence-Jones protein?BKA: Below knee amputation?BM: basal metabolism?BM: Bowel movement?BMD: Bone mineral density?BMI: Body mass index?BMP: Basic metabolic panel?BMR: Basal metabolic rate?BMT: Bone marrow transplant?BNO: Bowels not open?BNP: B-type Natriuretic Peptide?BOOP: Bronchiolitis obliterans with organizing pneumonia also referred to as cryptogenic organizing pneumonia?BOR: Bowels open regularly?BP: Blood pressure?BP: Bullous Pemphigoid?BP: bypass?BPD: Borderline psychiatric disorder?BPD: Bronchopulmonary dysplasia?BPH: Benign prostatic hypertrophy?BPM: Beats per minute?BPP: Biophysical profiling?BPRS: Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale?BPV: Benign Paroxysmal Vertigo?BRAT: Banana, rice, applesauce, toast?BRAVE: Breast cancer-Anemia and the Value of Erythropoietin?BRCA1/2: Breast cancer 1 and 2 genes?BRP: Bathroom privileges?BS: Bowel sounds?BS: Blood sugar?BS: Breath sounds?BSA: Body surface area?BSE: Bovine spongiform encephalopathy?BSO: Bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy?BSS: Balanced Salt Solution?BUN: Blood urea nitrogen?BV: Bacterial vaginosis?BW: Body water?BW: Body weight?Bx.: Biopsy?C: Celsius?C: Complement?ĉ: With?C & A: Clinitest and acetest?C & P: Cystoscopy and pyelogram?C & S: Culture and sensitive?C & S: Culture and sensitivity?c.: With?c. : With?C.E.R.A.: Continuous Erythripoietin Receptor Activator?C/O: Complains of?C/O: Complains of?C1, C2, ….: Cervical vertebrae 1,2, …?Ca: Calcium?Ca: Cancer?Ca: Carcinoma?Ca: Cardiac arrest?Ca: Coronary artery?CA-125: A tumor marker for ovarian cancer?CAB: Cellulose acetate butyrate?CABG: Coronary artery bypass graft?CACI: Computer-Assisted Continuous Infusion?CAD: Coronary artery disease?CAG: ?CAH: Chronic active hepatitis?CAH: Congenital adrenal hyperplasia?calid. : Warm?CALM: Café aulait macules?cANCA: Cytoplasmic pattern of ANCA?CAP: Community-acquired pneumonia?cap.: Capsule?CAPD: Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis?Caps: Capsules?CAPS: Cryopyrin-Associated Periodic Syndromes disorders?CAPTIA Syph G: ?CAPTIA Syph M: ?CAST: Cardiac arrhythmia suppression trials?CAT: Computerized axial tomography?Cataplasm.: Poultice?CAV: Cyclophosphomide, doxorubicin and vincristine?CAVH: Continuous arteriovenous haemofiltration?CBA: Competitive binding assay?CBC: Complete blood count?CBT : Cognitive behavioral therapy?CBZ: Carbamazepine?CBZ-E: Carbamazepine-epoxide?CC: Chief complaint?CCB: Calcium channel blocker?CCD: Cortical collecting duct?CCF: Congestive cardiac failure?CCHB: Congenital Compete Heart Block?CCK: Cholecystokinin?CCr: Creatinine clearance?CCU: Coronary care unit?CD: Cluster of differentiation?CDA: Chlorproguanil hydrochloride dapsone-artesunate?CDAD: Difficile-associated diarrhea?CDC: Centers for Disease Control?CDCA: Chenodeoxycholic acid; chenodiol?CDI: Central diabetes insipidus?cDNA : Complementary DNA?CEA: Carcinoembryonic antigen?CETP: Cholesteryl ester transfer protein?CF: Cardiac failure?CF: Complement fixation?CF: Cystic fibrosis?CFC: Chlorofluorocarbon?CFDS: Color flow Doppler sonography?CFE: Capital femoral epiphysis?CFL: Calcaneo-Fibular Ligament?CFS: chronic fatigue syndrome?CFT: Complement fixation test?CFTR: Cystic fibrosis transmembrance conductance regulator protein?CG: Chorionic gonadotropin?CGI: Clinical Global Impression?CGL: Chronic granulocytic leukaemia?cGMP: Cyclic 3\',5\'-guanosine monophosphate?CGN: Chronic glomerulonephritis?CHB: Complete heart block?CHD: Coronary heart disease?CHF: Congestive heart failure?CHO: Carbohydrate?Chol: Cholesterol?CHOP: Cyclophosphamide, hydroxydaunorubicin, Oncovin, prednisolone?CHR: Corticotrophin-releasing hormone?CI: Cardiac index?CI: Cerebral infarction?CI: confidence interval?cIAI: Complicated intra-abdominal infections?cib. : food?CIN: Cervical Intraepithelial neoplasia?CIVA: Centralized intravenous additive?CJD: Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease?CK: Creatine kinase?CKD: Chronic kidney disease?cK-MB: ?Cl: Chloride?CL: clubbing?CLARITY: Clopidogrel as Adjunctive Reperfusion Therapy?CLCN: Cl¯ channel?ClCr: Creatinine clearance?CLD: Chronic liver disease?CLD: Chronic lung disease?CLIP: Clip Closure In Percutaneous?CLL: Chronic lymphocytic leukemia?CM: Cardiomyopathy?CM: Cutaneous mastocytosis?Cmax: Maximum serum concentration?CMF: Cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and fluorouracil?CML: Chronic myelogenous leukemia?CMML: Chronic myelomonocytic leukemia?CMP: Complete metabolic panel?CMV: Cytomegalovirus?CMV: Controlled mechanical ventilation?CMVIG: ?CN: Cranial Nerve?CNS: Central nervous system?CO: Cardiac output?co. : compound?CoA: Coenzyme A?COAD: Chronic obstructive airways disease?COD: Cause of death?COG: Closed angle glaucoma?COLD: Chronic obstructive lung disease?collun.: nosewash?collut. : mouthwash?collyr.: Eye lotion?COMMIT: Clopidogrel and Metoprolol in Myocardial Infarction Trial?comp. : Compound?COMT : Catecholamine-O-methyl-transferase inhibitors?ConA: Concanavalin A?conc. : Concentrated?COP: Capillary osmotic pressure?COPD: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease?COX: Cyclo-oxygenase?COX-1: Cyclooxygenase-1?COX-2: Cyclooxygenase-2?CP: Cor pulmonale?CP: Creatine phosphate?CPA: Cardiopulmonary arrest?CPA: Cerebellar pontine angle?CPAP: Continuous positive airway pressure?CPB: Cardiopulmonary bypass?CPD: Continuous peritoneal dialysis?CPE: Cytopathic effect?CPK: Creatine phosphokinase?CPM: Central Pontine Myelinolysis?CPN: Chronic pyelonephritis?CPPD: Calcium Pyrophosphate Dihydrate?CPPV: Continuous positive pressure ventilation?CPR: Cardiopulmonary resuscitation?CPZ: chlorpromazine?CR: cardiorespiratory?CR: Clot retraction?CR: Colon reserction?CR: Complete response?CR: Conditional reflex?Cr: Creatinine?CR: Crown-rump?CRAG: ?CRAO: Central Retinal Artery Occlusion?CRD: Chronic renal disease?CREB: Cyclic AMP-response-element binding protein?crem.: Cream?CREST: ?CRF: Chronic renal failure?CRF: Corticotrophin-releasing factor?CRH: Corticortropin-releasing hormone?CRP: C-reactive protein?CRVO: Central Retinal Vein Occlusion?CsA: Combination with cyclosporine?CSD: Cat-Scratch Disease?CSE: Combined spinal-epidural technique?CSE: Convulsive Status Epilepticus?CSF: Colony Stimulating Factor?CSF: Cerebrospinal fluid?CSF-VDRL: ?CSH: Chronic subdural haematoma?CSM: Carotid sinus massage?CSM: Cerebrospinal meningitis?CSM: Committee on safety of Medicines?CSP: Carotid sinus pressure?CSR: Cheyne-Stokes respiration?CSR: Correct sedimentation rate?CSS: Central sterile supply?CSS: ?cSSSI: Complicated skin and skin structure infections?CST: Contraction stress testing?CSU: Catheter specimen of urine?CT: Calcitonin?CT: Circulation time?CT: Clotting time?CT: Computed tomography, Computerized tomography?CT: Coombs\' test?CT: Coronary thrombosis?CT scan: Computed tomography?CTCL: Cutaneous T cell lymphomas?CTL: Cytotoxic T cell lymphocytes?CTZ: Chemoreceptor trigger zone?CUA: Cost utility analysis?CUG: cystourethrogram?CV: Cardiovascular?CV: Central venous?CV: Cerebrovascular?CV: Contingent valuation?CVA: Cerebrovascular accident?CVA: Costovertebral angle?CVC: Cardiovascular center?CVD: Cardiovascular disease?CVP: Central venous pressure?CVS: Chorionic villus sampling?CVVH: Continuous venovenous haemofiltration?Cx: Cervix?Cx: Cervical?CXR: Chest x-ray?d: Daily?d: Dead?d: Deceased?d : Deuteron (nuclear pharmacy)?D & C: Dilatation and curettage?D & E: Dilation and evacuation?D & V: Diarrhea and vomiting?D value: Decimal reduction time?D&V: Diarrhea and vomiting?D.C.: Discontinue?d.t.d. : Give of such doses?D/S: Dextrose and saline?D1: Dopamine-1 receptor?D2: Dopamine-2 receptor?d4T: Stavudine?D50: 50% Dextrose Solution?D5W: Dextrose 5% in water?D5W: Dextrose 5%?DA: Dopamine?DBI: Diazepam-binding inhibitor?DBP: Diastolic blood pressure?DC: Direct Current?DC (D/C): Discontinue?DCIS: Ductal carcinoma in situ?DCM: Diffuse cutaneous mastocytosis?DD: Differential diagnosis?DDAVP: Vasopressin?DDAVP: ?ddC: Zalcitabine (Dideoxynucleoside drugs zalcitabine)?DDD: Degenerative Disk Disease?DDH: Developmental dysplasia of hip?ddI: Didanosine?DDx.: Differential diagnosis?DES: Diethylstilbestrol?dest. : Distilled?DETAIL: Diabetics Exposed to Telmisartan and Enalapril?DEV: Duck embryo vaccine?DEXA: Dual-energy photo X-ray absorptiometry?DFA: Direct immunofluorescent antibody?DFP: Diisopropyl fluorophosphates?DFS: Disease-free survival?DFSP: Dematofibrosarcoma protuberans?DGI: Disseminated Gonococcal Infection?DH: Dermatitis Herpetiformis?DH: Drug history?DHEA: Dehydroepiandrosterone?DHEAS: Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate?DHFR: Dihyrofolate reductase?DHT: Dihyrotestosterone?DHT: Dihydrotachysterol?DI: Diabetes Insipidus?DIC: Disseminated intravascular coagulation?Diff: Differential blood count?Dig: Digoxin (be careful with this abbreviation)?dil. : Dilute?DIP: Distal interphalangeal joint?DIP: Desquamative interstitial pneumonia?disc. : Discontinue?DISH: Diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis?DISIDA: Diisopropyliminodiacetic acid?DIT: diiodotyrosine?div. : Divide?DIVA: Dosing IntraVenous Administration?DIVA: Dosing IntraVenous Administration?DJD: Degenerative joint disease?DKA: Diabetic ketoacidosis?dL: Deciliter?DL: Diffusing capacity?DLBCL: Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma?DLE: Discoid lupus erythematosus?DLE: Disseminated lupus erythematosus?DM: Diabetes mellitus?DM: Diastolic murmur?DMARDs: Disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs?DMC: Diabetic microvascular complication?DME: ?DMPA: Depot medroxyprogesterone acetate?DMSA: Dimercaptosuccinic acid?DMSO: Dimethyl sulfoxide?DMV: Department of Motor Vehicles?DNA: Deoxyribonucleic acid?DNA: Did not attend (outpatients)?DNAR: Do not attempt resuscitation?DNR: Do not resuscitate?DOA: Dead on arrival?DOB: Date of birth?DOD: Date of death?DOE: Dyspnea on exertion?DOPA: Dihydroxyphenylalanine?DOPAC: Dihydroxyphenylacetic acid?DOQI: Dialysis Outcomes Quality Initiative?DOT: Directly observed therapy?DPD: Dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase?DPL: Diagnostic Peritoneal Lavage?DPN: Diabetic peripheral neuropathy?DPT: Diphtheria, Pertussis, Tetanus vaccine?DR: Diabetic retinopathy?DRE: Digital rectal examination?DRI: Dietary reference intake?DRT: Decimal reduction time?DSM: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders?DSM-IV: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual IV?DT: delirium Tremens ?DTaP: Diphtheria, Tetanus, acellular, Pertussis vaccine?DTIC: Dacarbazine?DTP: Dipheria, tetanus, pertussis (vaccine) toxoid?DTPA: Diethylenetriaminetetraacetic acid?DTR: Deep tender reflex?DTs: Delirium tremens?DU: Diagnosis undetermined?DU: Duodenal ulcer?DUB: Dysfunctional uterine bleeding?DUE: Drug use evaluation?dup. : Double?DVT: Deep vein thrombosis?DW: Distilled water?DWI: Diffusion weighted images?Dx: Diagnosis?DXT: Deep X ray therapy?E. coli: Escherichia coli?e.m.p. : As directed?E/I: Expiration-inspiration ratio?E1: Estrone?E2: Estradiol?EAR: Estimated average requirement?EB: Epstein Barr virus?EBNA: EB virus nuclear antigen?EBV: Epstein Barr virus?EC: Electron capture?EC: enteric coated?ECBV: Effective circulating blood volume?ECF: Extracellular fluid?ECFV: Extracellular fluid volume?ECG: Electrocardiograph?ECHO: Echocardiogram?ECHO: Echoencephalogram?ECL: Enterochromaffin-like?ECM: Erythema chronicum migrans?ECMO: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation?ECT: Electroconvulsive therapy?ED: Emergency department?ED: Erectile dysfunction?EDD: Expected date of delivery?EDRF: Endothelium-derived relaxing factor?EDSS: Expanded Disability Status Scale?EDTA: Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid?EDV: End-diastolic volume?EE: Ethinyl estradiol ?EEG: Electroencephalogram?EENT: Eyes, ears, nose, and throat?EF: Erectile Function?EFS: Event free-survival?EFW: Estimated fetal weight?EGD: Esophagogastroduodenoscopy ?EGF: Epidermal Growth Factor?EGFa: Epidermal Growth Factor alpha?EGFr: Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor?EHEC: Enterohemorrhagic E coli ?EIA: Enzyme immunoassay?EIEC: Enteroinvasive E coli?EKG: Electrocardiogram?ELBW: Extremely low birth weight?ELISA: Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay?elix. : Elixir?EM: Ejection murmur?EMBP: Estramustine-binding protein?EMG: Electromyogram?EMRs: Electronic medical records?EMS: Early morning specimen?EN: Erythema nodosum?ENS: Enteric nervous system?ENT: Ears, nose, and throat?EP: Ectopic pregnancy?EPDS: Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale?EPO: Erythropoietin?EPO: Evening Primrose oil?EPS: Extrapyramidal signs and symptoms?EPSE: Extra-pyramidal side effects?ER: Emergency room?ERCP: Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography?ERT: Estrogen replacement therapy?ESBLs: Extended spectrum beta-lactamases?ESM: Ejection systolic murmur?ESN: Educationally subnormal?ESP: End-systolic pressure?ESPRIT: Efficacy and Safety in Patients with Renal Impairment treated with Telmisartan?ESR: Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (sed rate)?ESRD: End Stage Renal Disease?ESRF: End-stage renal failure?ESWL: Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy?Et: And?ET: Endotracheal tube?ETEC: Enterotoxigenic E coli?EtOH: Alcohol?ETT: Endotracheal tube?ETT: Exercise tolerance test?EUA: Examination under anaesthetic?EUS: Endoscopic ultrasonography?ex aq.: In water?F: Fission (nuclear pharmacy)?F: Fahrenheit?FAS: Fetal alcohol syndrome?FAST: Focused Abdominal Sonography in Trauma?FB: Finger breadth?FB: Foreign body?FBC: Full blood count?FBS: Fasting blood sugar?FCAS: Familial Cold Auto-Inflammatory Syndrome?FCE: Finished consultant episode?FDA: Food and Drug Administration?FDG: fluorodeoxyglucose?FENa: Fractional Excretion of Sodium?FEP: Free erythrocyte protoporphyrin?FEV: Forced expiratory volume?FEV1: Forced expiratory volume in the first second?FFA: Free fatty acids?FFP: Fresh frozen plasma?FH: Family history?FHR: Fetal heart rate?FIO2: Fractional Inspiration of Oxygen?FISH: fluorescent in situ hybridization ?fl: Fluid?FL: Follicular Lymphoma?FL: Follicular non-Hodgkin\'s lymphoma?fld : Fluid?FNA: Fine-needle aspiration?FOB: Faecal occult blood?FOBT: Fecal Occult Blood Test?FOOSH: Fall On an Out-Stretched Hand?fort. : Strong?FP: Fluticasone propionate?FP: Frozen plasma?FRC: Functional reserve capacity?FRC: Functional residual capacity?FROM: Full range of movement?FSD: Female sexual dysfunction?FSFI: Female sexual function index?FSG: Focal segmental glomerulonephritis?FSH: Follicle-stimulating hormone?ft. : Make?FT3: Free triiodothyronine?FT4: Free thyroxine?FTA-ABS: Fluorescent treponemal antibody absorption?FTI: Free Thyroxine Index?FTT: Failure to thrive?FUO: Fever of unknown origin?FVC: Force vital capacity?fx: Fracture; fraction?g: Gram?G6PD: Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase?GA: General anaesthesia?GA: General appearance?GABA: γ-aminobutyric acid?GAD: Generalized anxiety disorder?GAS: Group A streptococcus?GB: Gallbladder?GB-C virus: ?GBL: Gamma-butyrolactone?GBM: Glioblastoma multiforme?GBM: Glomerular basement membrane?GBP: Gastric bypass?GBS: Group B streptococcus?GBS: Guillain-Barré Syndrom?GC: Gonorrhea?GCS: Glasgow Coma Score?GCS: Glasgow Coma Scale?G-CSF: Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor?GDM: Gastrointestinal diabetes mellitus?GER: Gastroesophageal reflex?GERD: Gastroesophageal reflux disorder?GF: Glomerular filtration?GFR: Glomerular filtration rate?GGT: Gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase?g-GT: y-glutamyl transpeptidase (transferase)?GGTP: ?GH: Growth hormone?GHB: Gamma hydroxybutyrate?GHRH: Growth hormone-releasing hormone?GHRIH: Growth hormone release inhibiting hormone?GI: Gastrointestinal?GI GVHD: gastrointestinal graft-versus-host disease?GIFT: Gamete intrafallopian transfer?GIK: Glucose, insulin and potassium?GIQLI: GI Quality of Life Index?GIST: Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors?GIT: Gastrointestinal tract?GLA: y-linolenic acid?GLP-1: Glucagon-like peptide-1?Gm: Gram?GM seizure: Grand mal seizure?GM-CSF: Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor?GN: Glomerulonephritis?GNDC: Gram-negative diplococci?GnRH: GONADOTROPIN-RELEASING HORMONE?GPe: Globus pallidus externa?GPi: Globus pallidus interna?gr : Grain?gr. : Grain?Grav.: Gravid (pregnant)?GRE: Glucocorticoid receptor elements?GS: General surgery?GS: Genital system?GSD II: Glycogen storage disease II?GSRS: Gastrointestinal Symptoms Rating Scale?GSW: Gunshot wound?GTC: Generalised tonicclonic?GTN: Gestation trophoblastic neoplasia?GTN: Glyceryl trinitrate?GTT: Glucose tolerance test?gtt: Drop?GU: Gastric ulcer?GU: Genitourinary?GU: Gonococcal urethritis?GUS: Genitourinary system?GUSTO: ?GVHD: Graft-versus-host disease?GVL: graft versus leukemia?gyn: Gynaecology?H: Hypodermic?H & P: History and physical?H&L: Heart and lungs?h.: Hour?h.s. : At bed time?h/o: History of?HA: Headache?HAA: Hepatitis-associated antigen?HAART: Highly active antiretroviral therapy?HACE: High Altitude Cerebral Edema?HACEK: Haemophilus, Actinobacillus, Cardiobacterium, Eikenella, Kingella?HAHA: Human anti-human antibody?HAMA: Hamilton Anxiety Scale?HAPE: High Altitude Pulmonary Edema?HAS: Human albumin solution?HAV: Hepatitis A virus?Hb: Hemoglobin?HB: Heart block?HbA1c: Glucosylated hemoglobin?HBAg: Hepatitis B antigen?HBD: Hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase?HBDM: Hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase?HbF: Hemoglobin, fetal?HBGM: Home blood glucose monitoring?HBIG: Hepatitis B immune globulin?HBO: Hyperbaric oxygen?HBsAg: Hepatitis B surface antigen?HBsAG: Hepatitis B surface antigen?HBV: Hepatitis B virus?HC: Head circumference?HCC: Hepatocellular carcinoma?hCG: Human chorionic gonadotropin ?HCO3: Bicarbonate?Hct: Hematocrit?HCT: hematopoietic cell transplantation?HCTZ: Hydrochlorothiazide?HCV: Hepatitis C virus?HCVD: Hypertensive cardiovascular disease?HD: hemodialysis?HDAC: Histone deacetylase?HDCV: Human diploid cell rabies vaccine?HDL: High-density lipoproteins?HDP: Hydroxymethylene diphosphonate?HDUL-C: High-density lipoprotein cholesterol?HDV: Hepatitis D virus?HE: Granulocytic ehrlichiosis?HEDP: 1-hydroxyethylidene diphosphonate?HEENT: Head, eyes, ears, nose, throat?HELLP: Hemolysis, elevated liver functions, low platelets?HEMA: Hydroxyethylmethacrylate?Hep A: Hepatitis A?HEPA: High-efficient particulate air filters?HER1: Human epidermal growth factor receptor?HER-2neu: A receptor present in some breast cancers?HERG: ?HES: Hypereosinophilic syndrome?HEV: Hepatitis E virus?HF: Heart failure?HFE: ?Hgb: Hemoglobin?HgbAIC: Glycosylated hemoglobin?HGPRT: Hypoxanthineguanine phosphoribosyl transferase?HGV: Hepatitis G virus?HHNKC: Hyperglycemic Hyperosmolar Non-Ketotic Coma?HHV: Human herpes virus?HHV-8: Human herpesvirus-8?HIAA: 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid?Hib: Haemophilus influenzae type b?HIDA: Hepatobiliary nuclear scan?HIDA: N[N\'(2,6dimethylphenyl)varbamoylmethyl] iminodiacetic acid?HIE: Hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy?HIFU: High-intensity focused ultrasound?HIT: Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia?HIV: Immunodefieciency virus?HLA: Human leukocyte antigen?HMD: Hyaline membrane disease?hMG: Human menopausal gonadotropins?HMG-CoA: 3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A?HMM: Hexamethylmelamine?HMMA: 4-hydroxy-3-methoxymandelic acid?HMSN: Hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy?HMW: High-molecular weight?HNPCC: Hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer?HO: House officer?HOPE: Heart Outcomes Prevention Evaluation?HP: hemoperfusion?HPA: Hypothalamic pituitary adrenal?HPC: Hematopoietic progenitor cell?HPEN: Home pareneral and enteral nutrition?HPF: High-power field?HPI: History of present illness?HPN: Home parenteral nutrition?HPV: Human papilloma virus?HR: Heart rate?HR: hazard ratio?hr.: Hour?HRCT: High-resolution computed tomographic?HRQL: Health-related quality of life?HRT: Hormone replacement therapy?hs: At bed time?HS: Half strength?HS: Hartmann\'s solution?HS: Heart sounds?HSA: Human serum albumin?HSCT: Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation?HSIL: High-grade squamous intraepithelial lesiion?HSM: Hepatosplenomegaly?HSP: Henoch-Scholnlein purpura?HSV: Herpes simplex virus?HSV-1: Herpes simplex virus type 1?HSV-2: Herpes simplex virus type 2?HT: Hormone therapy?ht. : Draught?HTLV-1: Human T cell leukemia virus?HTN: Hypertension?HTST: High-temperature short-time pasteurization?HTVD: Hypertensive cardiovascular disease?HUS: Haemolytic uraemic sundrome?HVA: Homovanillic acid?HVD: Hypertensive vascular disease?HVL: Half-value layer?Hx: History?HZ: Herpes zoster?I & O: Intake and output?i.c. : Between meals?I:E ratio: Inspiratory to expiratory ratio?IABC: Intra-Aortic Balloon Counterpulsation?IADHS: Inappropriate antidiuretic hormone syndrome?IBC: Iron binding capacity?IBD: Inflammatory bowel disease?IBS: Irritable bowel syndrome?IC: Intercostal?IC: Intracerebral?IC: Intracranial?ICA: Islet cell antibody?ICD: International classification of disease?ICDs: Implantable cardioverter-defibrillator devices?ICF: Intracellular fluid?ICH: Intracerebral haemorrhage?ICM: Intracostal margin?ICP: Intracranial pressure?ICRP: International Committee on Radiation Protection?ICS: Inhaled corticosteroids?ICS: Intercostal space?ICSI: Intracytoplasmic sperm injection?ICU: Intensive Care Unit?ID: Intradermal?IDDM: Insulin dependent diabetes mellitus?IDE: Investigational Device Exeption?IDL: Intermediate density lipoproteins?IDU: Idoxuridine?IEF: Incontinence episodes frequency?IEP: Immunoelectrophoresis?IES: Intergroup Exemestane Study?IFA: Indirect immunofluorescence assay?IFIs: Invasive fungal infections?IFN: Interferon?Ig: Immunoglobulin?IgA: Immunoglobulin A?IgD: Immunoglobulin D?IgE: Immunoglobulin E?IGF-I: Insulin-like growth factor-I?IgG: Immunoglobulin G?IGIV: Immune globulin IV?IgM: Immunoglobulin M?Igs: Immunoglobulins?IGT: Impaired glucose tolerance?IHD: Ischaemic heart disease?IHR: Intrinsic heart rate?IHSS: Idiopathic hypertrophic subaortic stenosis?IKr: ?IL-1: Interleukin-1?IL-2: Interleukin-2?ILD: Interstitial lung disease?IM: Intramuscular?IMA: Inferior Mesenteric Artery?IMI: Inferior myocardial infarction?IMP: Impression?IMRT: Intensity modulated radiation therapy?IND: Notice of Claimed Investigational Exemption for a New Drug?Inf. MI: Inferior myocardial infarction?INH: Isoniazid?inj. : injection?INR: International normalized ratio?int. : Between?IOM: Institute of Medicine?IOP: Intraocular pressure?IP: Intraperitoneal?IP: inpatient?IPA: Inhibition of platelet Aggregation?IPC: Intermittent pneumatic compression?IPF: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis?IPP: Intermittent positive pressure inflation with oxygen?IPPB: Intermittent positive pressure breathing?IPPV: Intermittent positive pressure ventilation?IPSID: Immunoproliferative small intestinal disease?iPTH: ?IPV: Inactivated polio vaccine?IQ: Inhibitory Quotient?IQ: Intelligence quotient?IR: immediate release?IRDS: Idiopathic respiratory distress syndrome?IS: Insertion sequences?ISA: Intrinsic sympathomimetic activity?ISDN: Isosorbide dinitrate?ISE: Ion-selective electrode?ISH: Isolated systolic hypertension?ISM: Indolent systemic mastocytosis?IT: Isomeric transition?ITLC: Instant thin-layer chromatography?ITP: Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura?ITT: Insulin tolerance test?ITT: Intent-to-treat?IU: International unit?IUCD: Intrauterine contraceptive device?IUD: Intrauterine device?IUFD: Intrauterine fetal demise?IUGR: Intrauterine growth restriction?IUI: Intrauterine insemination?IUP: Intrauterine Pregnancy?IV: Intravenous?IVC: Inferior vena cava?IVD: Intervertebral disc?IVF: In vitro fertilization?IVH: Intraventricular haemorrhage?IVIG: Intravenous immunoglobulin ?IVP: Intravenous pyelogram?IVPB: Intravenous piggy back?IVSD: Interventricular septal defect?IVU: Intravenous urography?IVUS: Intravascular ultrasound?J: Jaundice?J: Joules?JAIDS: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome?JCV: JC virus?JRA: Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis?JVD: Jugular venous distension?JVP: Jugular venous pressure?K+: Potassium?KA: Ketoacidosis?KCCT: Kaolin-cephalin clotting time?KGF: Keratinocyte growth factor?KLS: Kidney, liver, spleen?KPs: Keratic precipitates?KS: Kaposi\'s sarcoma?KSS: Kearns-Sayre syndrome?KUB: Kidney, ureter, and bladder?kV: Kilovolt?KVO: Keep vein open?L: Left?L&A: Light and accommodation?L&U: Lower and upper?L&W: Living and well?L1, L2, …: Lumbar vertebrae 1,2,…?LA: Left arm?LA: Left atrium?LA: Local anaesthesia?LA: Long-acting?LABA: Long acting beta2-agonist?LAD: Left anterior descending?LAD: Left Axis Deviation?LAL: Limulus amebocyte lysate?LAP: Leukocyte alkaline phosphatase?LASIK: Laser in situ keratomileusis?LBBB: Left Bundel Branch Block?LBM: Lean body mass?LBW: Low birth weight?LCAT: Lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase?LCIS: Lobular carcinoma in situ?LCPD: Legg-Calve-Perthes disease?LCR: Ligase chain reaction?LCT: Long chain triglyceride?LD: Lactate dehydrogenase?LD : Leathal Dose?LD: Low dose?LDH: Lactic dehydrogenase?LDL: Low-density lipoproteins?LDL-C: Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol?LDUH: Low dose unfractionated heparin?Le: Lupus erythematosus?LEEP: Loop electrosurgical excision procedure?LES: Lower Esophageal Sphincter?LFT: Liver function test?LGA: Large for gestational age?LGSIL: Low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion?LGV: Lymphogranuloma venereum?LH: Luteinizing hormone?LHRH: Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone?LIC: liver iron concentration?LIF: Left iliac fossa?liq.: Solution?LK: Left kidney?LKKS: Lever, kidneys, spleen?LKS: Liver, kidney, spleen?LL: Left leg?LL: Left lower?LL: Lower lobe?LLL: Left lower lobe?LLL: Loft lower lid?LLQ: Left lower quadrant?LMN: Lower motor neuron?LMP: Last menstrual period?LMW: Low molecular weight?LMWH: Low molecular weight heparin?LN: Lymph node?LNMP: Last normal menstrual period?LOC: Level of consciousness?LOC: Loss of consciousness?LOM: Limitation of movement?lot. : Lotion?LOX: Liquid oxygen system?LP: Lumbar puncture?LP(a): Lipoprotein(a)?LPA: Left pulmonary artery?LPL: Lipoprotein lipase?LPS: Latency to persistent sleep?LPS: Lipopolysaccharide?LR: Lactated Ringer\'s Solution?LS: Left side?LS: Liver and spleen?LS: Lumbosacral?LS: Lymphosarcoma?LSB: Left Sternal Border?LSD: Lysergic acid diethylamide?LSIL: Low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion?LSK: Liver, spleen, kidneys?LSM: Late systolic murmur?LT: Leukotriene?LTC: Long term care?LTE: Long Term Extension?LTG: Lamotrigine?LTI: Lowest Threshold Intake?LTOT: Long term oxygen therapy?LUL: Left upper lobe?LUQ: Left upper quadrant?LV: Left ventricle ?LV: Lymphogranuloma Venereum?LVDP: Left ventricular diastolic pressure?LVE: Left ventricular enlargement?LVEDP: Left ventricular end diastolic volume?LVET: Left ventricular ejection time?LVF: Left Ventricular function?LVH: Left ventricular hypertension?LVMI: Left ventricle mass index?LVP: Left ventricular pressure?LVSD: Left ventricular systolic dysfunction?lytes : Electrolytes?M: Male?M: Married?M: Meter?M: Mother?M: Molar?M: Murmur?M.: Mix?m. : In the morning?m.d. : As directed?m.d.u. : To be used as directed?M:P: Milk to plasma ratio?MAA: Macroaggregated albumin?MAB: Maximal androgen blockade?MABP: Mean arterial blood pressure?MAC: Mycobacterium avium complex?MADRS: Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale?MAI: Mycobacterium avium intracellulare?MALT: Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue?MALToma: Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma?MAMC: Mid arm muscle circumference?MAO: Monoamine oxidase?MAO-A: Monoamine oxidase A?MAO-B: Monoamine oxidase B?MAOI: Monoamine oxidase inhibitor?MAP: Mean arterial pressure?MAS: Meconium aspiration syndrome?MASES: Maastricht Ankylosing Spondylitis Enthesitis Score?MAST: Military Anti-Shock Trousers?MAT: Multifocal Atrial Tachycardia?MB fraction: ?M-BACOD: Methotrexate, bleomycin, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone?MBC: Minimal bactericidal concentration?MBP: Mean blood pressure?MCA: Medicines control agency?MCA: Middle cerebral artery?mcg: Microgram?MCH: Mean corpuscular hemoglobin?MCHC: Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration?MCL: Mantle cell lymphoma?MCL: Mast cell leukemia?MCL: Medial Collateral Ligament?MCP: Metacarpal phalangeal (joint)?mCPP: m-Chlorophenylpiperazine?mCRC: Metastatic colorectal cancer?MCS: Mast cell sarcoma?MCT: Medium chain triglycerides?MCTD: Mixed connective tissue disease?MCV: Mean corpuscular volume?MCV : Mean corpuscular cell volume?MD: Mitral disease?MD: Muscular dystrophy?MDD: Major depressive disorder?MDHD: Maximum daily human dose?MDIs: Metered-dose inhalers?MDM: Mid diastolic murmur?MDMA: Methylenedioxymethamphetamine?MDP: Methylene diphosphonate?MDR: Multidrug resistance?MDRD: Modification of Diet in Renal Disease?MDRSP: multi-drug resistant Streptococcus pneumonia?MDRTB: Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis?MDRTB: Multidrug resistant tuberculosis?MDS: Myelodysplastic Syndrome?ME: Myalgic encephalitis?MEIA: Microparticle Enzyme Immunoassay?MEK: Methyl ethyl ketone?MELSA: Myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes?MEN: Multiple endocrine neoplasia?MEN: Multiple endocrine neoplasia?MERRF: Myoclonic epilepsy, ragged red fiber syndrome?MESA: Microsurgical epididymal sperm aspiration?Met.: Metastatic (metastasis)?MetHb: Methemoglobin?MFS: Major facilitator superfamily?MG: Myasthenia Gravis?MGN: Membranous glomerulonephritis?MGUS: Monoclonal Gammopathy of Uncertain Significance?MH: Medical history?MH: Menstrual history?MHA-TP: ?MHC: Major histocompatibility complex?MHPG: Methoxyhydroxyphenylglycerol?Mhrpc: Metastatic hormone refractory prostate cancer?MI: Mitral incompetence or insufficiency?MI: Myocardial infraction?MIC: Minimal inhibitory concentration?MICU: Medical Intensive Care Unit?MID: Multi infract dementia?MIRD: Medical internal radiation dose?mist.: mixture?MIT: monoiodotyrosine?mitt. : send?mL: Milliliter?ML: Middle lobe?ML: Midline?MLV: murine leukemia viruses ?MM fraction: ?MMC: Maternally inherited myopathy and cardiomyopathy?MMF: Mycophenolate mofetil?mmHg: Millimeters of mercury?MMI: Methimazole?MMPR: 6-methylmercaptopurine ribotide?MMR: Measles-mumps-rubella vaccine?MMSE: Mini-Mental State Examination?MOM: Milk of magnesia?MOPP: Mistune, oncovin (vincristine), procarbazine?MPA: Maximum platelet aggregation?MPC: Metastatic adenocarcinoma of the pancreas?MPCM: Maculopapular cutaneous mastocytosis?MPD: Maximum permissible dose?MPD: Myeloproliferative disorders?MPGN: Membranoproliferative Glomerulonephritis?MPJ: Metacarpophalangeal joint?MPM: Malignant pleural mesothelioma?MPS II: Mucopolysaccharidosis II?MPTP: 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,5,6-tetrahydropyridine?MR: Mental retardation?MR: Mitral regurgitation?MRA: Magnetic resonance angiography, Magnetic resonance angiogram?MRCP: Magnetic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography?MRD: Minimal residual disease?MRDM: Malnutrition related diabetes mellitus?MRHD: Maximum recommended human dose?MRI: Magnetic resonance imaging?MRSA: Methicillin resistant Ataphylococcus Aureus?MRV: Magnetic resonance venography?MS: Morphine sulfate?MS: Multiple sclerosis?MS: Mitral stenosis?MSA: Membrance-stabilizing activity?MSAFP: Maternal serum alpha fetoprotein?MSDBP: Mean sitting diastolic blood pressure?MSH: Melanocyte-stimulating hormone?MSI: Microsatellite instability?MSL: Midsternal line?MSSBP: Mean sitting systolic blood pressure?MSU: Midstream time interval?MTB: ?MTD: 2-methy-1,2,4-thiadiazole-5-thiol?MTD: maximum tolerated dose?mTOR: Mammalian target of rapamycin?MTP: ?MTS: Mouth and Throat Soreness?MTT: Methyl-tetrazole-thiomethyl?MTX: Methotrexate?MUGA: Multigated acquisition?MV: Minute volume?MV: Mitral valve?MVA: Motor Vehicle Accident?MVAC: Methotrexate, Vinblastine, Doxorubicin, and Cisplatin?MVP: Mitral valve prolapse?MVPP: Mustine, vinblastine, procarbazine, prednisolone?MVR: Mitral valve replacement?MWS: Muckle-Wells Syndrome?N: Neutron (nuclear pharmacy)?N: Normal?N & V: Nausea and vomiting?N & V: Nausea and vomiting?N&T: Nose and throat?n. : At night?n. et m. : Night and morning?N.F.: National Formulary?n.m. : Night and morning ?n.p. : The proper name?N.S.: Normal saline?N/K: Not known?N/S: Normal saline?N/V: Nausea/Vomiting?NA: Noradrenaline?NAC: N-acetylcysteine?NACC: National association for colitis and crohn\'s disease?NACS: Neurological and adaptive capacity scoring?NAD: Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide?NADP: Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate?NAFLD: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease?NAG: Narrow angle glaucoma?NaHCO3: Sodium bicarbonate?NAION: Non-arteritis anterior ischemic optic neuropathy?NAPA: N-acetylprocainamide?NAPQI: N- acetyl-p-benzoquinoneimine?narist.: Nose drops?NARP: Neurogenic muscular weakness with ataxia and retinitis pigmentosa?NARTI: Nucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase?NBM: Nil by mouth?NC: Less than 10% change in plasma concentration.?NCA: No carrier added?NCCTG: North Central Cancer Treatment Group?NCRP: National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurement?NDA: New Drug Application?NDI: ?nd-NMBAs: Nondepolarizing neuromuscular blocking agents?NE: Norepinephrine?NE: Not Evaluated?neb.: Spray solution?NEC: Necrotizing enterocolitis?NF: Neurofibromatosis?NG: Nasogastric?NHL: Non Hodgkin\'s syndrome?NHS: National health service?NIAID: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases?NIDDM: Non insulin dependent diabetes mellitus?NK: Natural killer cell?NKHA: Non ketotic hyperosmolar acidosis?NMBA: Neuromuscular Blocking Agent?NMDA: N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor ?NMR: Nuclear magnetic resonance?NMS: Neuroleptic malignant syndrome?NMTT: N-methylthiotetrazole?NNRT: Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase?NNRTI: Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor?noct. : Night?NOF: Neck of femur?non rep.: Do not repeat?NOS: Nitric Oxide Synthase?NP-59: 6β-iodomethyl-19-norcholesterol?NPH: ?NPN: Non-protein nitrogen?NPO: Nulla Per Os (Nothing by mouth)?NPPV: Noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation?NRC: Nuclear Regulatory Commission?NREM: Non-rapid eye movement sleep?NRTIs: Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors?NS: Nephrotic syndrome?NS: Nervous system?NS: Normal saline?NS : No specimen?NSAAs: NonSteroidal Anti-Androgens?NSABP: National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project?NSAID: NonSteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drug?NSB: Normal sinus beat?NSCLC: Non-small cell lung cancer?NSFTD: Normal spontaneous full term delivery?NSIP: Nonspecific interstitial pneumonitis?NSR: Normal sinus rhythm?NSS: Normal Saline Solution?NST: Nonstress test?NSTEMI: Non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction?NSU: Nonspecific urethritis?NSVT: Nonsustained ventricular tachycardia?NT: Nasotracheal (tube)?NTD: Neural tube defect?NTG: Nitroglycerin?NTM: Nontuberculous mycobacteria?NTS: Nucleus tractus solitarius?NTZ: Nitazoxanide?NVD: Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, neck vein distention?o: absent?O: Oedema?O&A: Observation and assessment?O&E: Observation and examination?O.: Pint?o.alt.hor : Every other hour?o.d. : Every day?o.d. : Right eye?o.l.: Left eye?o.m. : Every morning?o.n. : Every night?o.u. : Both eyes?O/A: On admission?O/E: On examination?O/E: On examination?O2: Oxygen?OA: Osteoarthritis?OA: Osteoarthritis?OAD: Obstructive airway disease?OAF: Osteoclast activating factor?OAG: Open angle glaucoma?OB: Occult blood?OBS: Organic Brain Syndrome?Obs-Gyn: Obstetrics and gynaecology?OCD: Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder?OCD: Obsessive-compulsive disorder?OCP: Oral contraceptive pill?OCP: Oral contraceptive pill?OCs: Oral contraceptives?oculent.: Eye ointment?OD: Right eye?OD: Overdose?OD: Overdose?ODAC: Oncologic Drug Advisory Committee?OGTT: Oral glucose tolerance test?OH: Occupational history?OI: Opportunistic infection?OKGA: Ornithine salt of a-ketoglutaric acid?OME: Otitis media with effusion?OMFS: Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery?ONJ: Osteonecrosis of the jaw?OOB: Out of bed?OP: Out patients?OPA: Outpatient appointment?OPD: Outpatient department?OPV: Oral polio vaccine?OR: Operating room?ORIF: Open Reduction with Internal Fixation?ORR: Objective response rate?OS: Left eye?OS: Overall survival?OSD: Osgood-Schlatter disease?OSHA: Occupational Safety and Health Administration?OT: Occupational therapy?OTC: Over-the-counter?OTE: Overall Treatment Effect?OU: Both eyes?P: Proton?P&A: Percussion and auscultation?P&V: Pyloroplasty and vogotomy?p.a.: To the affected part?p.aeq. : Equal parts?p.m.: Afternoon; evening?p.m. : Afternoon?p.o.: By mouth?PA: Pernicious anaemia?PA: Pulmonary artery?PACG: Primary angle closure glaucoma?PaCO2: Arterial carbon dioxide tension?PAD: Peripheral Arterial Disease?PAF: Prednisone plus Adriamycin plus fluorouracil?PAF: Platelet activating factor?PAGE: Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis?PAH: Pulmonary arterial hypertension?PAI-1: Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1?PALS: Pediatric Advanced Life Support?pANCA: Perinuclear Antineutrophilic Cytoplasmic Antibody?PANCA: Perinuclear pattern of ANCA?PANCAs: Perinuclear pattern of ANCAs?PANSS: Positive and Negative Symptoms Scale?PaO2: Arterial oxygen pressure tension, Partial Pressure of Oxygen?Pap: Papanicolaou smear?PAPS: Primary antiphospholipid syndrome?PAR: Perennial allergic rhinitis?Para: Number of pregnancies?part. affect.: To be applied to the affected part?Part. dolent. : To the painful part?PAS: P-aminosalicylic acid?PASI: Psoriasis Area and Severity Index?Past.: paste?PAT: Paroxysmal atrial tachycardia?PAWP: Pulmonary artery wedge pressure?Pb: Lead?PB: Premature beats?PBC: Primary biliary cirrhosis?PBI: Protein-bound iodine?PBPs: Penicillin binding proteins?PBSC: Peripheral blood stem cell support?PBSCT: Peripheral stem cell transplantation?PC: After meal?PCA: Patient-controlled analgesia?PCAS: Patient controlled analgesia system?PCD: Pediatric Crohn\'s disease?PCEC: Purified chick embryo cell?PCI: Percutaneous coronary intervention?PCL: Posterior Cruciate Ligament?PCN: Penicillin?PCO2: Partial pressure of carbon dioxide?PCOS: Polycystic ovarian syndrome?PCP: Phencyclidine?PCP: Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia?PCP: Primary Care Physician?PCPA: p-chlorophenylalanine?PCPT: Prostate Cancer Prevention Trail?PCR: Polymerase chain reaction?PCr: Plasma creatinine concentration?PCS: Portocaval shunt?PCT: Porphyria Cutanea Tarda?PCV: Pressure control ventilation?PCV: Packed cell volume ?PCWP: Pulmonary capillary wedge pressure?PD: Parkinson\'s disease?PD: Peritoneal dialysis?PD: Personality Disorder?PD: Pro-drug?PDA: Patent ductus arteriosus?PDE: Phosphodiesterase?PDQ: At once?PDT: Photodynamic therapy?PE: Phenytoin equivalents?PE: Physical examination?PE: Pleural effusion?PE: Pulmonary embolism?PEAR: Pearson syndrome?PEEP: Positive end-expiratory pressure?PEF: Peak expiratory flow?PEFR: Peak expiratory flow rate?PEG: Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy?PEJ: Percutaneous endoscopic jejunostomy?PEM: Prescription event monitoring?PEP: Positive expiratory pressure?PERLA: Pupils equal, react to light and accommodation?PERRLA: Pupils equal, round, react to light and accommodation?PERRLA: Pupils equal and react to light and accommodation?PET: Positron emission tomography?PF: Peak flow?PFR: Peak flow rate?PFS: Progression free survival?PFT: Pulmonary function test?PG: Prostaglandin?PGA-1: Polyglandular autoimmunity type I?PGD: Pre-implantation genetic diagnosis?PGE: Prostaglandin?PGWBI: Psychological Well-Being Index?PH: Past history?PH: Patient history?PH: Personal history?PH: Prostatic hypertension?PH: Pulmonary hypertension?Ph+: Philadelphia-chromosome positive?PHA: Phytohemagglutinin?PHN: Postherpetic neuralgia?PI: Protease inhibitor?PI: Present illness?PI: Protease inhibitor?PICC: Peripherally inserted central catheter?PICU: Pediatric intensive care unit?PID: Pelvic inflammatory disease?PIF: Prolactin inhibitory factor?Pig.: paint?PIP: Proximal interphalangeal joint?PIPIDA: Paraisopropyliminodiacetic acid?PIVD: Protruded intervertebral disc?PIVOT: Prostate Cancer Intervention Versus Observation Trail?PJB: Premature junctional beat?PJC: Premature junctional contraction?PJD: Prevention of Joint Damage?PK: pharmacokinetics?PKC : Protein Kinase C?PKU: Pheylketonuria?PL: Product license?PM: Photomultiplier (tube)?PM: Postmortem?PMDD: Premenstrual dysphoric disorder?PMH: Past medical history?PMI: Past medical illness?PMI: Point of Maximal Impulse?PML: Multifocal leukoencephalopathy?PML: Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy?PMMA: Polymethylmethacrylate?PMN: Polymorphonuclear neutrophils?PMS: Premenstrual syndrome?PMS: Postmenopausal syndrome?PMT : Premenstrual tension?PMV: Prolapsed mitral valve?PN: Percussion note?PN: Peripheral nerve?PN: Peripheral neuropathy?PNa: Plasma sodium concentration?PND: Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnoea?PNH: Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria?PO: By mouth?PO: Oral (peroral)?PO: Per os?PO2: Partial pressure of oxygen?POAG: Primary open angel glaucoma?POC: Products of conception?POI: Postoperative ileus?POMR: Problem oriented medical record?Postop: After surgery?PP: Periodic Paralysis?pp. : Parts?PPAR: Peroxisome proliferators activated receptor?PPAR-α: Peroxisome proliferators activated receptor-alpha?PPAR-γ: Peroxisome Proliferators-activated receptor gamma?PPC: Postpartum Cardiomyopathay?PPD: Purified protein derivative?PPH: Postpartum haemorrhage?PPI: Proton pump inhibitor?PPNG: Penicillinase producing Neisseria gonorroehoeae?PPV : Positive pressure ventilation?PR: Partial response?PR: Per rectum?PRA: Plasma Renin activity?PRCA: Pure red cell aplasia?Preop: Before surgery?PRH: Prolactin releasing hormone?PRI: Population Reference Intake?PRK: Photorefractive keratectomy?PRL: Prolactin?PRM: Primidone?prn: As needed?PROM: Premature rupture of membrane?PS: Pulmonary stenosis?PS: Pyloric stenosis?PsA: Psoriatic arthritis?PSA: Prostate-specific antigen?PSAD: Prostate-specific antigen density?PSC: Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis?PSG: polysomnographic?PSGN: Poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis?PSI: Pneumonia Severity Index?PSVT: Paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia?Pt: Patient?PT: Prothrombin time?PT: Parathyroid?PT: Paroxysmal tachycardia?PT: Physical therapy?PT: Physical training?PT: Posterior tibial (pulse)?PT: Prothrombin time?PT: Prothrombin time?PTA: Prior to admission?PTC: Percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography?PTC: Percutaneous transhepatic cholangiogram?PTCA: Percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty?PTFL: Posteriior Talo-Fibular Ligament?PTH: Parathyroid hormone?PTHrP: Parathyroid hormone-related protein?PTL: Preterm labor?PTSD: Post-traumatic stress disorder?PTT: Partial thromboplastin time?PTTK: Partial thromboplastin time kaolin?PTU: Propylthiouracil?PTX: Pneumothorax?PU: Pass urine, per urethra?PU: Peptic ulcer?PUD: Peptic ulcer disease?PUD: Pulmonary disease?Pulv.: Powder?Pulv. Consp.: Dusting?PUO: Pyrexia (fever) of unknown origin?PUVA: Psoralen plus Ultraviolet A light?PV: Vaginal examination (per vagina)?PVB: Premature ventricular beat?PVC: Premature ventricular contraction?PVD: Peripheral vascular disease?PVP: Percutaneous vertebroplasty?PVP: Pulmonary venous pressure?PVR: Peripheral vascular resistance?PVT: Paroxysmal ventricular tachycardia?PWM: Pokeweed mitogen?Px. : Past history?Px. : Prognosis?PZI: Protamine zinc insulin?q.d.s. : To be take four times daily?q.i.d.: Four times daily?q.q.h. : Every four hours?q.qq.h. : Every four hour?q.s. : Sufficient?q.s.: A sufficient quantity?q.s. ad: A sufficient quantity to make?QALY: Quality adjusted life year?qd: Every day?QF: Quality factor?qh: Every hour?qid: Four times a day?qod: Every other day?qq. : Every?qq. h. : Every hour?QRS: Wave in ECG?QT: Wave in ECG?R: Rectal?R: Respiration?R factors: Resistance factors?R.L.: Ringer\'s Lactate?R/L: Ringer\'s Lactate?RA: Right atrium?RA: Renal artery?RA: Rheumatoid arthritis?RA: Right arm?RA: Right atrial (atrium)?RAI : Radioiodine scans?RAS: Rennin Angiotensin System?RAST: Radioallergosorbent test?RBBB: Right Bundel Branch Block?RBC: Red blood cell?RBE: Relative biologic effectiveness?RBF: Renal blood flow?RBP: Retinol-binding protein?RBS: Random blood sugar?RCC: Red blood count?RCC: Renal Cell Carcinoma?RCT: Randomized controlled trial?RDA: Recommended dietary allowance?RDS: Respiratory distress syndrome?RDW: Red blood cell distribution width?REE: Resting energy expenditure?REM: Rapid eye movement?REMS: Rapid eye movement sleep?Rf: Ratio in chromatography?RF: Renal failure?RF: Rheumatic fever?RF: Rheumatoid factor?RF: Risk Factor?RFS: Relapse-free survival?RFT: Respiratory function tests?RGD: ?RGP: Rigid gas permeable?Rh: Rhesus factor?Rh factor: Rhesus factor?rHA: Recombinant human endostatin?RHD: Renal hypertensive disease?RHD: Rheumatic heart disease;?RHF: Right heart failure?RHL: Right hepatic lobe?rhuEPO: Recombinant human erythropoietin?rhuGM-CSF: Recombinant human granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor?RIA: radioimmunoassay?RIBA: Recombinant immunoblot assay?RICE: Rest, ice, compression, elevation?RIF: Right iliac fossa?RIMA: Reversible inhibitor of monoamine oxidase type A?RISA: Radioiodinated serum albumin?RK: Right kidney?RL: Right leg?RL: Right lung?RLC: Residual lung capacity?RLD: Related living donor?RLL: Right lower lobe (lung)?RLQ: Right lower quadrant (abdomen)?RLS: Restless Legs Syndrome?RMSF: Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever?RNA: Ribonucleic acid?ROM: Range of motion?ROM: Rupture of membranes?ROS: Review of symptoms?RP: Radial pulse?RPE: Retinal pigment epithelium?RPF: Renal plasma flow?RPI: Resting pressure index?RPLS: Reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome?RPR: Rapid plasma regain?RQ: Respiratory quotient?RR: Recovery room; respiratory rate?RR&E: Round regular and equal (pupils)?RS: Respiratory system?RSAB: Recurrent spontaneous abortion?RSF: Rheumatoid serum factor?RSI: Rapid Sequence Intubation?RSO : Radiation Safety Officer?RSV: Respiratory syncytial virus?RSV-IVIG: RSV immunoglobulin?RT: Rapid tranquillisation?RTA: Road traffic accident?RTF: Resistance transfer factor?RTK: Receptor tyrosine kinases?rt-PA: Recombinant plasminogen activator?RUL: Right upper lobe?RUQ: Right upper quadrant?RV: Residual volume?RV: Right ventricle?RVA: Rabies vaccine adsorbed?RVH: Right ventricle hypertrophy?RVV: Russell viper venom?RVVT: Russell\'s viper venom clotting time?RW: Relative weight?Rx: Take?Š: Without?S&S: Signs and Symptoms?S.: Without?s.o.s: If necessary?S/S: Signs and Symptoms?S1: First heart sound?S2: Second heart sound?S3: Third heart sound?S4: Fourth heart sound?SA: Short-acting?SA: Sino-atrial?SA: Sinoatrial (node)?SA: Strokes-adams (attacks)?SA: Surface area?SAAG: Serum-ascites albumin gradient?SAARDs: Slow-acting antirheumatic drugs?SAB: Spontaneous abortion?SAD: Seasonal affective disorder?SAD: Social anxiety disorder?SAE: serious adverse events?SAH: Subarachnoid Hemorrhage?SAHA: Suberoylanilide hydroxamine acid?SANS: Scale for Assessing Negative Symptoms?SAP: Serum alkaline phosphatase?SAR: Seasonal allergic rhinitis?SARS: Sudden acute respiratory syndrome?SB: Seen by?SB: Shortness of breath?SBE: Subacute bacterial endocarditis?SBE: Shortness of breath on exertion?SBO: Small bowel obstruction?SBP: Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis?SBP: Systolic blood pressure?SC: Subcutaneous?SCCHN: Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck?SCFE: Slipped capital femoral epiphysis?SCI: Spinal Cord Injury?SCLC: Small cell lung cancer?SCr: Serum creatinine?SCU: See SCUF?SCUF: Slow continuous ultrafiltration?SD: Stable disease?SD: Standard deviation?SDD: Selective decontamination of the digestive tract?sec. art.: With pharmaceutical skill?Sed rate: Erythrocyte sedimentation rate?SELECT: The Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trail?SEM: Systolic ejection murmur?SEP: Sexual Encounter Profile?SERM: Selective estrogen receptor modulator?SES: Socioeconomic status?SGA: Small for gestational age?SGOT: Serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase?SGPT: Serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase?SGRQ: St. Georges Respiratory Questionnaire?SH: Social history?SH: Serum hepatitis?SHBG: Steroidal hormone-binding globulin?SHEP: Systolic Hypertension in the Elderly Program?SHPT: Secondary hyperparathyroidism?SIADH: Syndrome of inappropriate ADH secretion?SIADH: Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone?SIB: Self-injurious behavior?SIDS: Sudden infant death syndrome?Sig.: Write on label?SIMV: Synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation?SIRS: Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome ?sJIA: Systemic onset juvenile idiopathic arthritis?SJS: Stevens-Johnson syndrome?SJW: St. John\'s wart?SL: Sublingual?SLE: Systemic lupus erythematosus?SM: Systemic mastocytosis?SMA: Spinal muscular atrophy?SM-AHNMD: Systemic mastocytosis with an associated clonal hematologic non-mast cell lineage disease?SMR: Sexual maturity rating?SMX: Sulfamethoxazole?SMZ: Sulfamethoxazole?SNpr: Substantia nigra pars reticulata?SNRI: Serotonin noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor?SOA: Swelling of ankle(s)?SOAP: Subjective, objective, assessment, plan?SOB: Shortness of breath?SOBOE: Short of breath on exertion?sol.: Solution?SOS: Swelling of sacrum?SP: Systolic pressure?SPA: Suprapubic aspiration?SPA: special protocol assessment?SPC: Summary of product characteristics?SPECT: Single photo emission computed tomography?SPEP: Serum protein electrophoresis?SQ: Subcutaneous?SR: Sedimentation rate?SR: Sinus rhythm?SR: Sustained release?SREs: Skeletal-related events?SRS: Somatostatin receptor scintigraphy?SRY: Sex-region determining Y factor?ss.: One-half?SSI: Surgical Site Infection?SSRI: Serotonin-selective reuptake inhibitor?SSRIs: Serotonin-selective reuptake inhibitors?SSSS: Staphylococcal scalded-skin syndrome ?SSTI: Skin and Soft Tissue Infections?ST: Sinus tachycardia?STAT: As soon as possible?stat.: Immediately (latin: statim)?STD: Sexually transmitted disease?STD: Sodium tetradecyl sulphate?STDs: ?STEMI: ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction?STN: Subthalamic nucleus?STS: Serological tests for syphilis?SU: ?subc: Subcutaneously?subq: Subcutaneously?SUDEP: Sudden Unexpected Death in Epilepsy?SUI: Stress Urinary Incontinence?sum. t.: To be taken thrice thrice?sup.: Suppository?susp.: Suspension?SV: Stroke volume?SVC: Superior vena cava?SVI: Stroke volume index?SVR: Sustained virological response?SVR: Systemic Venous Resistance?SVT: Supraventricular tachycardia?SWS: Slow wave sleep?Sx: Symptoms?syr.: Syrup?t: Temperature?T & A: Tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy?T&C: Type and crossmatch?T&X: Type and crossmatch?t.d.d : Three times daily?t.d.s : To be taken three times daily?T1/2: Terminal serum half-life?T3: Thyroxine 3?T3: Triiodothyronine?T4: Thyroxine 4?T4: Thyroxine?TAB: Therapeutic abortion?tab.: Tablet?TAH: Total abdominal hysterectomy?tal. : Such?tal. dos.: Such doses?T-ALL: T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia?TASS: Toxic Anterior Segment Syndrome?TAT: Tetanus antitoxin?TAT: Thematic Apperception Test?TB: Tuberculosis?TBA: To be administered?TBA: To be arranged?TBG: Thyroxine-binding globulin?TBG: Thyrotropin-releaseing hormone?TBI: Total body irradiation?TBII: Thyrotropin binding inhibitory immunoglobulin?TBP: Thyroid-binding-proteins?TBSA: Total burn surface area?tbsp.: Tablespoonful?TBW: Total body water?TC: Total cholesterol?TCA: Tricyclic antidepressant?TCAs: Tricyclic antidepressants?TCD: Transcranial Doppler?TD: Tardive dyskinesia?Td: Tetanus and diphtheria?TDF: Testis-determining factor?TDM: Therapeutic drug monitoring?TDP: Thermal death point?TDT: Thermal death time?TEDS: Elastic stockings?TEE: Transesophageal echo?TEF: Thermic effect of food?TEM: Triethylenemelamine?TEN: Toxic epidermal necrolysis?TENS: Transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation?TEPA: Triethylene-phosphoramide?TERT: Telomerase reverse transcriptase?TESA: Testicular sperm extraction?TF: Tissue factor?TFPI: Tissue factor pathway inhibitor?TFT: Trifluorothymidine?TG: Thioguanine?TG: triglyceride?Tg: Thyroglobulin?TGF: Tubuloglomerular feedback?TGF-β: Transforming growth factor-beta?TGs: Triglycerides?TH: Thyroid hormone (thyroxine)?TH: Tyrosine hyroxylase?Th1: T helper type 1?THA: Tetrahydroaminoacridine?THC: Tetrahydrocannabinol?Ti: Tumer inducing?TIA: Transient ischemic attack?TIAs: Transient ischaemic attacks?TIBC: Total iron-binding capacity?tid: Three times a day?TIG: Tetanus immune globulin?TIMI: Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infraction?TIMP: Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases?TIPS: Transvenous intrahepatic portosystemic shunt?TKO: To keep open?TKVO: To keep vein open?T-LBL: T-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma?TLC: Total lung capacity?TLC: Tender loving care?TLD: Thermoluminescent dosimeter?TM: Tympanic membrane?Tmax: Time to Cmax?TMEP: Telangiectasia macularis eruptive perstans?TMJ: Temporomandibular joint?TMP: Trimethoprim?TMP-SMZ: Trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole?TMV: Tobacco mosaic virus?TNF: Tumor necrosis factor?TNF-α: Tumor necrosis factor-alpha?TNM: ?TOA: Tubo-ovarian abscess?TOCP: Triorthocresylphosphate?TOF: Tetralogy of Fallot?TOL: Trial of labor?TORCH: Toxoplasmosis, Other,Rubella virus, Cytomegalovirus, Herpes Simplex virus?t-PA: Tissue plasminogen activator?TPHA: T pallidum hemagglutination?TPM: Topiramate?TPMT: Thiopurine methyltransferase?TPN: Total parenteral nutrition?TPO: Thrombopoietin?TPR: Temperature, pulse, and respiration?TPV: Tipranavir?TR: Tricuspid regurgitation?tr.: tincture?TRAM flap: Trans-rectus abdominis muscle flap?TRAP: Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase?TRH: Thyrotropin-releasing hormone?Troch.: Lozenge?TRT: Tinnitus Retraining Therapy?TRUS: Transrectal ultrasound?TS: Tricuspid Stenosis?TSF: Triceps skinfold thickness?TSH: Thyroid-stimulating hormone?TSI: Thyroid stimulating immunoglobulin?tsp.: Teaspoonful?TSS: Toxic Shock Syndrome?TSST: Toxic shock syndrome toxin?TTA: Transtracheal aspiration?TTE: Transthoracic echocardiogram?TTF: Time to treatment failure?TTN: Transient tachypnea of the newborn?TTNA: Trans Thoracic needle aspiration?TTNB: ?TTO: To take out (to take home)?TTP: Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic purpura?TTP: Time to progression?TTTS: Twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome?TTV: TT virus?TUIP: Transurethral incision of the prostate?TULIP: Transurethral laser-induced prostatectomy?TUNA: ?TUR: Transurethral resection?TURB: Transurethral resection of the bladder?TURP: Transurethral resection of the prostate?tuss. : A cough?tuss. urg.: When the cough troubles?TV: Tidal volume?TVE: Transvaginal endoscopy?Tx: treatment?Tx.: Transfusion?TZD: Thiazolidinedione?U: Unit?U&E: Urea and electrolytes?u.a.: As before?u.d.: As directed?U.S.P.: United States Pharmacopia?U/A: Urinalysis?U/S: Ultrasound?UA: Unstable angina?UA: Uric acid?UA: Urinalysis?UBIC: Unsaturated iron binding capacity?UC: Ulcerative colitis?UCD: Urea cycle disorder?UCL: Ulnar Collateral Ligament?UCr: Urine creatinine concentration?UDCA: Ursodeoxycholic acid; ursodiol?UDP: Uridine diphosphate?UFH: Unfractionated heparin?UGI: Upper gastrointestinal?UHT: Ultra-high-temperature pasteurization?UIP: Usual interstitial pneumonitis?UL: ?UMN: Upper motor neuron?UNa: Urine sodium concentration?Ung: Ointment?UP: Urticaria pigmentosa?URI: Upper respiratory infection?URTI: Upper respiratory tract infection?US: Ultrasound?ut. dict.: As directed?ut. direct. : As directed?utend. : To be used?UTI: Urinary tract infection?UVA: Ultraviolet light?UVB: ?V: Volt?V/Q: Ventilation-Perfusion Ratio?V/Q: Ventilation-perfusion ratio?VAD: ?VaIN: Vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia?Val-HeFT: Valsartan in Heart Failure Trail?Vap.: Inhalation?VAQTA: ?Var: Varicella?VATS: Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery?VBAC: Vaginal birth after cesarean?VBG: Vertical banded gastroplasty?VC: Vital capacity?VCA: Virus capsid antigen?VCJD: Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease?VCUG: Voiding Cystourethrogram?VD: Veneral disease?VDRL: Venereal Disease Research Laboratory?VEDV: Ventricular end-diastolic volume?VEGF: Vascular endothelial growth factor?VEP: Visual Evoked Potential?VF: Ventricular fibrillation?VFD: Visual Field Defects?VHD: Valvular heart disease?Vi CPS: Vi capsular polysaccharide?VIN: Vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia?VIP: Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide?Vitrell.: Glass capsule?VKDB: Vitamin K deficiency bleeding?VLB: Vinblastine?VLBW: Very low birth weight?VLDL: Very low density lipoproteins?VMA: Vanillymandelic acid?VMS: Vasomotor symptoms?VOD: Veno-occlusive disease?VP: Venous pressure?VPC: Ventricular premature contraction?VRE: Vancomycin-resistant enterococcus?VS: Vital signs?VSD: Ventricular septal defect?VSP: Viridans streptococci?VT: Ventricular tachycardia?VT: Tidal volume?Vtach: Ventricular Tachycardia?VTE: Venous thromboembolism?VUR: Vesicoureteric reflux?VVC: Vulvovaginal candidiasis?VWD: Von Willebrand\'s Disease?VWF: Von Willebrand\'s Factor?VZIG: Varicella-zoster immune globulin?VZV: Varicella-zoster virus?WASO: ?WBC: White blood cell?WBC count: Leukocyte (white blood cell) count?WBS: Whole body scan?WCC: White cell count?WHEL: Woman\'s Healthy Easting and Living?WHO: World Health Organization?WNL: Within normal limits?WNV: West Nile Virus?WPW: Wolff Parkinson white (syndrome)?WR: Wassermann reaction?Wt: Weight?WTA: Willingness to accept?WTP: Willingness to pay?XIST: X-inactive-specific transcriptase?XR: X-ray?XRT: Radiation therapy?YAG: ?YMRS: Young-Mania Rating Scale?ZE: Zollinger Ellison (syndrome)?ZIFT: Zygote intrafallopian transfer?ZIG: Zoster immune globulin?α-1-AT: Α-1-Antitrypsin Deficiency?α-MSH: Alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone?β-hCG: β Human Chorionic Gonadotropin?Β-hCG: Beta subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin
Enter drug name:

3tc,3v,5-fluorouracil ebewe,a - viton,a power software,abilify,acc,acc long effervascent,accuzide,acetab,acetone bp,acic,acicone-s,acivir,aclasta,acnezoyl,acomplia,acretin,actavis siprox,actifed,actifed expectorant,activelle,actonel,actonel once a week,actos,actrapid novolet,acuitel fc,acular,acular ls,acupan,acyclovir,adalat,adalat la,adalat retard,adol,adol cold,adol extra,adol pediatric oral,adol pm,adol sinus,adrenaline bp,adrenaline bp+,adult meltus,advantan,advantan fatty,advil cold & sinus,advil ibuprofen,advil liqui-gels,aerious,aerius,a-gen 53n vaginal suppositories,aggrenox mr,agiolax,aicept,air,air lotion,airol vanishing,aironyl,akineton,aknemycin,akneroxide-5,aktiferrin-f,albalon liquifilm opthalmic,albenda,albumin human,albumin kabi iv,aldactone f.c.,aldara 5%,aldomet,alergoftal eye,alerid,alerkan,alfacort,algipan,alinal,alinamin - f odorless,alistim,alka - seltzer effervascent,allergetin,allergo - comod eye,allergo - comod nasal,allergyl,almond,almond bp,aloe vera pearls (herbal),alomide sterile opthalmic,alopexy cutaneous,aloxal,alphafen,alphagan opthalmic,alphagan p opthalmic,alveofact,alvityl,alvogyl,amaryl,ambisome iv,ambolar,amevive,amikin parenteral,aminess n,aminophylline,amirone,amlocan,amlocan forte,amlozek,amol,amol 6 plus,amol extra,amoxil,amoxil forte,ampiclox,ampiclox neonatal oral,amrizole,amrizole vaginal,amvaz,amydramine,amydramine pediatric,amydramine-ii,anafranil,anallerge - 4,anazol,ancopir,ancotil infusion,andriol testocaps,androcur,androgel,anexate,anexated \' roche \',angelic,anginova,angised,antacidin plus,antistine privine eye,anxetin,apcosule,apdyl - h cough,apidra prefilled,apiflox eye,apitropin eye,apo-allopurinol,apo-amilizide,apo-atenol,apo-captopril,apo-carbamazepine,apo-cimetidine,apo-doxy,apo-erythro,apo-ferrous glauconate,apo-gemfibrozil,apo-loratidine erythro,apo-napro na,apo-nifed,apo-ranitidine,apo-salbutamol,apresoline,aprovel,aqsia,arava,arcalion,arcoxia,aredia,ar-eze,arixtra,aromasin,artane,artelac sd eye,arthritis formula with devil\'s claw,artiz,asacol,asacol enema,asilone,asilone (peppermint flav.),asilone (spearmint flav.),asmafort,asmanex twisthaler,aspegic,aspegic 1000,aspegic 500,aspicot,aspinol,aspirin,aspirin migraine effervascent,aspirin protect ec,aspirin-c effervascent,asthalin,astonar,atacand,atacand plus,atarax,atehexal,athymil,ativan,atochol,atormin,atrican,atropine eye,atropine sulphate bp,atrovent,atrovent n metered,atrovent nabuliser,augmentin,augmentin es,augmentin infants,augmentin sr,auralgan ear,aureocort,aurimel,aurorix,avalox,avalox iv infus.,avandamet,avandaryl,avandia tiltab,avastin,avaxim,avaxim pediatric,aviral,avloclor,avodart,avomine,avonex im,axe brand universal,axid,ayuartis,ayuasmo,ayubes,ayucid,ayuderme,ayuges,ayulax,ayulite,ayumem,ayurhoids,ayurin plus,ayurol,ayurslim,ayusilma,ayuvigo,ayuvita forte,azaprin,azmacort,azomax,azomycin,azopt opthalmic,babylite rehyderation,bacimycin,bacimyxin,bactiflox lactabs,bactrim,bactrim forte,bactroban,bactroban nasal,balad,balanced salt,balkaprofen sr,baneocin,baraclude,barnetil,barnetil im,batrafen,baycuten,bcool,bebemol,beclazone 100 cfc free,becloforte,beconase nasal,becotide,becotide rotacaps,becovit,becozyme forte,beforte,begrocit effervascent,bekunis herbal,belara,bell\'s muscle,benelyn gf,benoquin,benzac ac,bepanthan,bepanthan plus,bepanthan roche,berotec,berroca ca & mag.eff.,berroca ca & mag.fc,betadine,betadine antiseptic,betadine dry powder,betadine gargle & mouth wash antiseptic,betadine scalp & skin,betadine skin,betadine surgical,betadine vaginal,betaferon subcut,betafucin skin,betagan liquifilm opthalmic,betahans,betaloc zok,betamet skin,betasept mouth wash/gargle,betasept vaginal,betaserc,betasone,betaten,betazol,betazol g,betnovate,betnovate c,betnovate n,betnovate scalp application,betolvex,betoptic sterile opthalmic,bevason,bevason n,bevit,bextra,bezalip retard,biafine wound dressing,bicarbonate,bidalkin vginal douche,bifril 30,biocarbon,biodroxil,biogest bladder control,biogest bladder tone,biogest menopause relief,biogest pms relief,bipreterax,bisolvon,bi-tildiem sr,blephamide liquifilmi opthalmic,blocotenol,blopress,bocatriol,bondronat concentration for infus.,bonfos,bonidon,bonisan,bonjela,bonviva,bonviva inj prefilled,borax bp,boric acid bp,boric bp,bospyrin,bostrombin,botox,brexin,brexin effervascent,bricanyl,bricanyl durules,brinerdin,bromelain-pos gastro resist,broncare,bronchicum n,bronchicum s,broncho - vaxom adult,broncho - vaxom children,bronchobos,broncholase,bronchopront,bronex oral`,bronkovent,brufen,brufen retard,bss sterile irrigating,bucaine,buccastem,budiar presrsd inh.,bufferin,burnaid,buscopan,buspar,buspar dividose,butacid,butalin,butalin solution for nebuliser,buventol,byetta,ca-c effervascent,ca-c vita effervascent,caduet,calamine,calamine bp,calcijex,calcium,calcium gluconate bp,calcium instant,calcium leucovorin,calcium sandoz forte effervascent,calciumfolinate ebewe,calgel teething,callimon effervascent,calpol,calpol six plus forte,calsyr,caltrate w/vitamin d,cal-vit,camphor bpc,canar,cancidas powder for iv infusion,candizole,canesten,canesten combi pack vaginal,capillary care with ginko biloba,capocard,capoten,capozide,capril,captace,captomex,captophar,carbamide,carboplatin ebewe,carbosan,cardiopine,cardol,cardura,carelox plus,carvidex,casodex,castor bp,cataflam,catalin opthalmic,catapress,caverject,ceclocare o,ceclor,ceclor mr,cedax,cefabac,cefadrox,cefatrexyl,cefaxone im/iv,cefix,cefodox,cefotax,cefotaxime im/iv (1+1),cefoxime,ceframed,cefrin,cefrom iv,ceftriaxone,ceftriaxone-tabuk im,ceftriaxone-tabuk iv,cefuzime,cefuzime im/iv,cefuzime oral,cefzil,cefzil oral,cegrovit effervascent,celebrex,celestone chronodose,cellcept,cellstim-h for men,cellstim-h for women,cellusive lubrican eye,cemaquin,cenovis celery herbal,cenovis echinacea complex,cenovis garlic horseradish & c complex,cenovis garlic with parsley,cenovis ginko plus,cenovis liver tonic/mild thistle,cenovis male formula,centrum adv.formula,centrum jr.w/exta vitamin c,cephalex,cephalex oral,cephracare,cerazette,cerepara,ceroxim,certican,certican dispersible,cetil,cetrotide,champix,chibroxine,children\'s advil,children\'s panadol(5-12 years),chinese star,chlorohistol,chloroquine,chooz anticid calcium suppliment,choragon,choriomon,cialis,cibacen,cicloral,cid,cidomycin adult,cidomycin pediatric,cidophage retard,ciflox,cifran,cilest,ciloprine ear,ciloxan,cipralex,cipram,ciprobay,ciprobay hc otic,ciprocin ear/eye,ciprodar fc,ciproflox,ciprofloxacin,ciprohexal,ciprolet,ciprolet rdy,ciprolon,cipromax,cipromax ear/eye,cipromax eye,cipromid,ciproxen,cirkulin valeran & hop,cirrus prolonged release,cisplatin ebewe,citrocid magnesium plus,citrolin,claforan im,claforan im & iv,claforan iv,clafotax im,clafotax iv,clamycin,clara,clarazole antidandruff,claridar,clarinase repetabs,claritin,claritin-d 24hrs extended release,claritt,claritt fc,clarosip,clenil,clexane,clindacin-c topical,clinoril,cliocort,clobate,clofast,clofen,clofen cr,clofen retard,clomid,clopixol,cloracef,clove bp,clovir,coamox - mepha,coamox - mepha coated,coaproval,coconut bp,codaphed,co-diovan,codipront,codis soluble,codopalm,codopalm expectorant,cogentin,coichicine,cold & flu relief with echinacea,coldifed,colestid,colfed,colfed dm,colircusi atropine eye,colircusi gentadexa eye/ear,colircusi gentamicin eye/ear,collomack,collyre bleu laiter,colmediten,colospasmin,colpermin,combivent m.dose inhaler,combivent unit dose,combivir,combizyme c,compound methyl salicylate,comtan,concavit,concerta,concor,confide,confortid,conigar,contiflo od,contratubax comp.,convulax,copegus,coracten spansules,cordarone,cordarone iv,co-renitec,corgard,corotenol cardotab,corsodyl mouth wash,cortaid topical,cortiderm,cortimax,cortiphenol h eye,cosopt eye,coumadin,coversyl,coxicam,cozaar,cresophene,crestor,crinone progestrone vaginal,crixan,crixan od,croma opthalmic,cromonal nasal,curam forte,curam oral,cusi viral,cusicrom eye,cusicrom nasal,cusicrom oftalmico,cusimolol,cusitrin paraciticide,cutivate,cyclo,cyclogest,cyclogyl,cyclosporine,cyclovax,cyklokapron,cyklokapron iv,cymbalta,cymevene,cyncholine,cynovit,cypro,cypro-bc,cystone,cyteal,dacrolux eye,daflon coated,daivobet,daivonex,daivonex scalp,daktacort,daktarin,daktarin oral,dalacin,dalacin c,dalacin t,dalacin t topical,daonil,daroxime,deca durabolin oily,decadron,decal b12,decalcit,decapeptyl cr syringe (1+1),decapeptyl cr syringe (3+3),decapeptyl solution for injection,decatylen,decongestyl,decozal nasal,decutan,deep freeze cold,deep relief,dekazol oral,deltarhinol nasal,dentinox infants colic,dentinox teething,depakin oral,depakine,depakine chrono sr,depo-medrol,depo-provera im,derm-ade,dermatin,dermizol,dermobactor for cutaneous application,dermofix,dermofucin,dermoplast aerosol,dermovate,dermovate scalp application,derm-t,desferal dry,detrusitol,detrusitol retard,dettol antiseptic,dettol personel care,dexalocal,dexalocal scalp application,dexalocal-f,dexanol,dexapanthenol,dexa-rhinaspray n,dexasalyl,dexasalyl scalp application,dexipan,dexsol oral,dextrokuf,dextrose 10 ml plastic,dextrose 20 ml plastic,dextrose 5 ml plastic,diabecon,dialon,diamicron,diamox,diamox parenteral,diane-35,dianeal,dianeal pd1,diaphage,diatab,diazepam,dicef,dicetel,diclo,diclo dispersible,diclofast,diclogesic,diclogesic retard,diclomax,diclo-na,dicynone,diet sweet,differin,difflam,difflam oral,diflucan,diflucan iv,digestif rennie,digestin,digestive formula,dilanyl,dilatrend,dilitus,dilzem,dilzem sr,dimet,dimetapp,diovan,dipehelin padiatric,dipentum,diphereline,dipivefrin hcl opthalmic,diprofos,diprogenta,diprolene,diprosalic,diprosalic lotion for scalp application,diprosone,disflatyl,disophrol,disophrol sa,dispril,ditropan,diuertic,divido dual release,dizinil,dizyst,doabetic,dogmatil,dogmatil forte,dolobene,dolobid,dopergin,dormicum,dorofen,dosin,dostinex,doxiproct,doxiproct plus,doxium,doxivenil,doxorubicin ebewe,dramamine,dramenex,dramylin,dramylin padiatric,drill,drill honey rosat,drill lemon mint,drill sugar free,droxaryl,droxil,dulcolax sc,dulsana,dulsana mild,dulsana with codeine,dumofer,dumoxin,dumozol,dumozol dental,dumozol iv plastic bags,dumozol vaginal,duofilm,duphalac,duphaston,dupromex,duracan,duracef,duracef oral,duradox,duratears,duratocin,duspatalin,duvimex,duxil,dyazide,dynastat,dynastat powder & solvent,dynastat powder for solution,dyspamet,ebeastel,ebixa,ebixa oral,ecavit,echinacea 5000,echinacin,echinacin madaus,ecocaine 2% with adrenaline,ecocaine dental,econochlor fenicol opthalmic,econopred plus opthalmic,efemoline eye,eferox,efexor,efexor xr,efferalgan,efferalgan effervascent,efferalgan infant,efferalgan young child,efudix,elantan long sr,eldepryl,eldopaque,eldopaque forte,eldoquin,elevit pronatal,elica,elica-m,elicasal,elidel,ellya woman formula,elmetacin,elocom,eloxatin iv,eltroxin,eludril mouth wash,emadine opthalmic,emicipro,emidol,emla,enam,enapril,enbrel,enbrel solution for injection pfs,engerix b pediatric vaccine,enhancin,eno fruit,eno fruit lemon,eno fruit orange,eno fruit regular,enterofuryl,entocort,entocort sr,envas,epanutin,epanutin ready mixed,epicephin im,epico effervascent salt,epicophylline,epicophylline adults,epicophylline infants,epimag effervascent,epinos fruit effervascent,epinos pineapple effervascent,epirax,epirazole,epotin,epsom bp,equoral oral,equoral soft gelatin,ercefuryl,ercefuryl oral,eromycin,eryderm,erythrocin,erythrocin f,erythrocin stearate,esidrex,essentiale forte,estaderm tts-100,estracomb tts,estring vaginal,estrofem,ethyl chloride tin,etopophos,etoposid ebewe for infusion,eucalyptus bp,eucarbon,eudyna,euglucon,eulexin,eumovate,eurax,euthyrox,eve care,eve care herbal,evion vitamin e,evista,evra transdermal,exacyl,exacyl solution for injection iv,excedexe,excedrin,exelon,exifine,exjade dispersible,exlution,exoderil,extraderm plus exfolient,extraneal p dialysis,exubera inhaler powder predispensed,exylin,exylin pediatric,eye care formula,e-z-cat,ezetrol,e-z-gas,e-z-hd,ezilax,ezipect,famocid,famodar,famvir,farcomethacin,farestone,fasigyn,fastum,fastum gel with dispenser,fatsolv,faverin,fawar fruit effervascent salt,fawar lemon effervascent salt,fefol spansule,fefol z spansule,feiba tim 4 immuno,feldene,feldene dispersible,femara,femoston,femoston conti,femulen,fenam forte,fenamic,fenbid spansules,fenistil,fenistil 24,fenistil coated,fer-in-sol,feroglobin,feromin oral,ferose,ferose chewable,ferose-f,ferriprox,ferro folic f,ferro-fol spansule,ferrosac iv,fertab-50,fevadol,fevadol extra,fevadol plus,fevadol sugar free,fexodine,fibercon,figuleen,figurin,finallerg,fitzecalm,fixit,flagentyl,flagyl,flagyl s,flamamacerium,flamazine,flatidyl,flatoril,flavaco nasal,flavaco otic,flavedrin mild nose,flavedrin nasal,flemoxin,flemoxin forte powder oral,flemoxin powder for oral,flemoxin solutab,fleximex,flixonase aq.nasal,flixotide,flixotide doskus inhaler powder,flixotide evohaler,flixotide inhaler,flogocid,floxacin,floxapen,flozak,flu care,fluanxol depot,fluanxol depot for,fluanxol dragees,fluarix adult vaccine prefilled,flucaril bi-floure mouth wash,flucocim,flucon sterile opthalmic,flucoric,fludara,fluditec expectorant for adults,fluditec infants & children,fludrex,flukit,flumed,flumizin vginal,fluorescite,fluoro-uracil,fluoxetine,flutin,fluxetyl,fluzyn,fml forte liquifilm opthalmic,fml liquifilm opthalmic,folicare,folicron,folicum,folitab,follegon im,foradil,foradil certihaler md dry powder inhaler,foradil m.aerosol,formit,forta b12,fortaneurin,fortapen omega,fortazar,forteo penfilled 3 ml,fortovase,fortum,fosavance,fostimon,fostimon(1+1),fostimon(10+10),fotil eye,fotil forte eye,fototar,foxime im,foxime im/iv,foxitin im/iv,fragmin,fraxiparine syringe,fraxodi solution sc,freederm antilice,fresh burst listerine antiseptic,froben,froben sr,fruital,frusemide bp,frusicort,fucidin,fucidin h,fucidin intertulle 10\30cm,fucidin leo,fucithalmic leo viscous eye,fudion,fulcin oral,fumafer,fusibact,fusibact b,fusiderm,fusix,futasole,futasone,fybogel orange sachet,gamalate b6,gamavate,gamimune n,garamycin 2ml,garamycin eye/ear,garasone eye/ear,garslim herbal,gasec gastrocaps,gastrex chewable,gastrobid continus,gastrofait,gaviscon advance oral(fennel flavor),gaviscon extra strength pepper mint,gelcosicone,gelofusine for infusion,gengraf,genotropin,genotropin powder(1+11),genso,gental,gentam,gentam eye/ear,gentamicin pos eye,gentian violet,gentian violet usp,geriaton forte soft gelatin,geriatric pharmaton,gericid,gevral protein-chocolate,gevral protein-orange,gincata,gincosan,ginsana,ginsana tonic with natural fruit concentrate,ginsavit,glaze,gliclazide,glimephan-1,glimephan-2,glimephan-3,glimephan-4,glivec,glivec hard,gloclav,glomox,glomox dispersible,glorion,glotac,glucobay,glucofer,glucolynamine,glucophage,glucose bp,glucovance,glustin,glycerin,glycerin bp,glycerin bp(glycerol),glycerin ichthynol pessaries,glycerin infantile,glycerol bp(glycerine),glycilax for adults,glycilax for children & babies,glycine irrigation,glynase,glyquin xm,glyzide,gold medal medicated,gonal f (1+1)ampoules,gonal f (10+10)ampoules,gonal f prefilled pen,gonal f(powder+solvent),gracial,grandoxy,granocyte,gripe baby water,grippo,grofenac,grofenac emulsion,gromazol,gupsone,gynera coated,gyno-daktarin,gyno-daktarin vaginal,gyno-flor e vaginal,gyno-mikazol,gyno-pevaryl depot,gyno-pevaryl vaginal,haem up liquid,hair grow,hair science for dandruff,haldol,harpagin,havrix 1440 adults vaccine,havrix 720 junior vaccine,healon r,hederal,hemoproct,hemovit,hepamerz granulated,hepa-merz infusion concentrated,hepa-pos,heparin,heparin sodium,hepsera,herbulax,hermesetas,hermesetas gold,hibor,hijuvan,himcolin,hinconil,hinconil powder for oral suspension,hirudoid,histac,histalix,histaloc,histan,histasin,histofen,histol,histop,humalog (insulin lispro),humalog mix 25 pen,humalog pen,human albumin immuno(insulin),human albumin(insulin),humatrope,humegon,humilin m3(30/70reg/nph mix) insulin,humilin nph hi 310 insulin,humilin r regular hi 210 insulin,humira prefilled syringe,hyalase,hycamtin iv,hydrcortisone sodium succinate,hydrcortisyl skin,hydrogen peroxide bp,hydrogen peroxide bp w/v,hygroton,hymox,hymox forte,hyopan,hyperium,hyperrho s/d syringe,hypromellose eye bps,hyzaar,ibu,ibu care,ibuclinrdy,ibugesic,ibuhexal retard,ichtammol,ichtamol bp,ichtamol usp,ideos chewable,iliadin,imavir,imavir eye,imdur,imigran,imigran nasal spray,imigran refill pack,imiprex,immunate,immunine,imodium,imox,imox dry,implanon,implortal,impugan,imu,imukin,imuran,indanorm,inderol,inderol la,indocid,indocid retard,indomel,inegrilin,inegy,infacol oral,infectoflam eye,infla-ban,inflaban sr,influvac vaccine,inhibace,inhibace plus,innohep anti-x,innohep anti-x prefilled,insidon,inspra,insulatard hm penfill(insulin),insulin actrapid human penfill,insulin insulatard human penfill,insulin monotard human,intal 5 inhaler,intal nebulizer,intard,intralipid parental,intron a,intron a pen,intron a solution,invirase,iodine tincture,iodine tincture bp,iodsept mouth wash gargle,ionil t shampoo,i-profen,iressa,ironorm,isilax complex,isilin,iso mac retard,iso mac retard spray,isodril,isodril sublingual,isodril tembids,isoket,isoket infusion,isoket retard sr,isoniazid,isoprinosine,isoptin dragees,isoptin iv,isoptin sr,isopto carbachol opthalmic,isopto carpine eye drops,isovist-240,isovist-300,isupril,itranox,itrin,ixel,ixime,januvia,jazofen,jedcoflacic,jogel o.,julmentin,julmentin forte,julphacef im/iv,julphamox,julphamox pediatric oral,julphapen,jusprin,kafosed,kalcipos,kalcipos d,kaletra,kaletra oral,kaopectate,kapect,kaptin,kaptin ii,kaptin ii caplets,kdiron,kdiron drops,keflex,keflex pulvules,kefzol,kemadrin,kenacomb,kenacort-a im,kenalog in orabase,kenazole shampoo,keppra,keppra oral,kerlone,ketek,ketesse,ketoderm,ketosterile,kiddi,klacid,klacid granules,klacid xl,klarfast,klaribac,klaricin,klarith,klavox,klavox dry,klean prep sachet,klerimed,kliogest,kofan instant,koflet cough,konakion chewable dragees,konakion m.m,konakion m.m pediatric,kordel\'s evening primrose oil,kordel\'s ginko,kordel\'s herbal laxative,kordel\'s herbal sleep,kordel\'s menolife(d & n),kordel\'s super exective b sr,kordel\'s zest for men,kufdrin expectorant,kulax,kytril,lactoline,lactolose,lady 4,lamictal,lamictal liquitabs,lamisil,lamisil dermagel,lamisil topical,lanetal,lanfast,lanibos,lanoxin,lanoxin pediatric/geriatric elixir,lantus optiset prefilled,lantus solution,lanzor,lao-dal,lapril,lariam,lasix,laxal,laxal effervascent salt,laxocodyl,laxolac,lecrolyn eye drops,ledercort,ledercort forte parenteral,legalon dragees,lempsip cold & flu lemon,powder for oral solution,lemsip flu 12hrs,lemsip max flu lemon,lemsip soar throat ta citrus flavor lozenges,leponex,lercadip,lescol,lescol xl,leucomax,leucovorin calcium,leukeran,levemir flexpen,levemir penfill,levitra,lexotanil,lexpec folic acid oral,librax,lidocaine,lignopanthen,lincocin,lioresal,lipanthyl,lipanthyl micronised,lipitor,lipofundin mct/lct,lipo-merz retard,lipostat,liquid gaviscon,liquid paraffin,liquid paraffin bp,liquifilm tears ocular lubricant,listerine antiseptic mouth wash,listerine coolmint mouth wash,liv 52 ds,liver formula with mild thistle,livial,livostin eye drops,livostin nasal spray,locabiotal aerosol spray,locacorten tar,locacorten vioform,locacorten vioform ear drops,locasalen,locatop,loceryl nail lacquer,locoid,locoid crelo topical emulsion,locoid lipocream,locoid scalp lotion,lodine,lodoz,lofral,logynon(triguilar),lohist,lomacholan-50 sc,lomaherpan,lomahypericum,lomal cough,lomax,lomexin ovules,lomexin scalp fluid,lomexin spray,lomexin t ovules,lomexin topical,lomexin vaginal,lomir,lomir sro,lomotil,longacef im,longacef iv,longifene,lopace,lopid,lopodium,lopram,lopressor,lopressor slow release divitabs,loracare,loraday,lorano,loratan,loratin,loraxine,loric,lorinase,lorine,losec iv infusion,losec mups,lotemax sterile opthalmic,lotense,lotriderm,lovir,lovrak,low-lip,lubrifilm eye,lucentis solution for injection,ludiomil,lumigan eye drops,lupron depot (1+1),lupron depot kit,lustyl,luveris,lyclear dermal,lyclear rinse,lyrica,lysobact,maalox plus suspension,maalox suspension,madecassol,madecassol neomycin hydrocort,mafepain,magalox suspension,maganesium sulfate(epsom salt),magnevist ampoules,malarex,malarone,maravalon,maravelon,mariagon,materna,maxalt,maxalt melt,maxidex opthalmic,maxidex opthalmic suspension,maxipime,maxipime powder for injection,maxiplex,maxitrol opthalmic,maxitrol opthalmic suspension,mebo herbal,mebzol,medacid,medacid chewable,medacid plus chewable,medamol caplets,medamol pediatric,med-folic acid,medijel gel dental gel,medinol over 6 suspension,medinol under 6 suspension,medrol a,medroxol,mefac,mefoxin,megace oral suspension,megamox,megamox suspension,megatril,meiact,melleril fc,mel-od,melrosum cough,melrosum s,memo soft gelatin,mencevax acwy vaccine(1+1),menogon,menopur pwdr.& solvent for,menosan,menthol & eucalyptus inhalation bp,menthol bp,mentholatum antiseptic lozenges,mentholatum balm,mentholatum deep heat rub,mentholatum deep heat spray,mentholax,mephaquin lactab,mepivastesin injection,merional(1+1),merional(10+10),mesporin im,mesporin iv,mesporin powder & solvent for iv infusion,mestinon,mestinon dragees,metaz,metfor,methergin,methotrexate,methotrexate ebewe,methotrexate ebewe p.solution,methycobal,methyldopa,metina oral vials,metocyl,metosil,metphage,meva,mevacor,miacalcic mrc,miacalcic nasal spray,micardis,micardis plus,miconaz oral,micoter,microgynon dragees,micronaze,midaflex,midarine,midopril,midrone extra,midroxil,midroxil dry suspension,migrain headache formula w.feverfew,migre-eze,mikacin i.m/i.v,mikostat,mikostat oral suspension,mikozol,minadex tonic orange flavour,minesse,minidiab,minihep leo,minipress,minirin,minirin melt,minirin spray,minisec,miniten,minocare,minocin,minonil,minulet,miranax,mirazol,mirazol oral,misotat intraocular solution,mitosyl,mivacron,mixavit,mixavit drops,mixavit m,mixtard 10 hm penfill,mixtard 10 novolet,mixtard 20 hm penfill,mixtard 20 novolet,mixtard 30 hm,mixtard 30 hm penfill,mixtard 30 novolet,mixtard 40 hm penfill,mixtard 40 novolet,mixtard 50 hm penfill,mixtard 50 novolet,mobiaid,mobic,mobilat,modalim,moduretic,molcer ear drops,momenta,monarpid hand antiseptic,monocef,monomack,mono-tildiem sr,motilium babies,motilium oral,motinil,motrin,movical powder for oral solution,moxal chewable,moxal ii suspension,moxal plus suspension,moxal suspension,moxicam,mucaine suspension,mucinum cascara,mucogel suspension,mucolase,mucolyte,mucopront,mucosol adult,mucosol pediatric,mucosolvan,mucosolvan liquid,mucum(sugarfree),multi sanostol,multibionta forte n,multitar mild shampoo,multitar plus regular shampoo,multitar plus shampoo,murine allergy eyes eye drops,murine clear eyes eye drops,murine eye drops,muscadol,muse urethral,myambutal,mycocort topical,mycoril,mycospor,mycostatin,mycostatin baby,mycostatin ready-mixed,mycoster,mycoster cutaneous,myco-synalar,mydriacyl opthalmic,myfortic,myleran,naaxia eye drops,naclof eye,nadine,nalidram,naphcon forte opthalmic,naphcon opthalmic,naphcon-a sterile opthalmic,naramig,nasacort aq.nasal spray,nasivin nasal drops adult,nasivin nasal drops pediatric,nasobec aq.nasal spray,nasonex aq.nasal spray,natozime,natrilix dragees,natrilix sr,natural citrus listerine,navelbine,navidine,navidoxin,navoban,nazine nasal drops,nebcin im & iv,negacef,negazole,negazole suspension,neo healar,neo maladine f.r,neoday,neodex eye/ear drops,neogyl,neo-meladine,neo-mercazole,neomol plus suspension,neomol suspension,neomox suspension,neopred-p e/ear drops,neo-rinactive intranasal nbl,neosporin eye drops,neotigason,neoventil,neoxicam,neoxidil,netromycin,netromycin pediatric,neulastim for injection pfs,neulin sa,neupogen,neupogen injection,neupogen prefilled,neurobion,neurocomb,neurontin,neurorubine,neurorubine forte lactab,nevanac opthalmic suspension,new b cool lozenges(sugar free),nexavar,nexium,nexium infusion,niaspan prolonged release,nicorette medicated chewing gum,nicotinell fruit chewing gum,nicotinell mint chewing gum,nicotinell mint lozenges,nicotinell tts-10,nicotinell tts-20,nicotinell tts-30,nifecard,nifluril,nif-ten,nilstat oral,nilstat topical,nimbex,nimotop s infusion,nisita mineral nasal,nitro mack retard,nitroderm tts-10,nitroderm tts-5,nitroject,nizoral,noctissin nasal spray,nolvadex,nolvadex-d,nootropil,nootropil ampoules,nootropil ampoules (iv/im),nootropil drinkable,nootropil fc,nootropil granules,nootropil iv infusion,nopain,nopain ds,nopil,nopil forte,nordette,nordiol-21,norditropin,norditropin nordilet,norflex,norflox,norgalax tubes enema,norgesic,normacol granules,normacol plus granules,noroxin,norprolac,norprolac(pink & blue),norvasc,norzol metronidazole suspension,nospasm,no-uric,novantrone,novesin eye drops,novirax w/w,novo mix penfill,novo rapid flexpen,novomix 30 flexpen,novonorm,novorapid hm penfill,nurofen cold & flu,nurofen liquid,nurofen oral suspension for children,nurse harvey\'s gripe mixture,nu-seals 75 ec,nutrineal pd 4 amino acid,nuvaring vaginal ring,nylol eye drops,nystalocal,octostim,ocubrax eye drops,ocufen liquifilm opthalmic,oculosan eye,oculotect eye gel,ocuvite,oenergy,oflox opthalmic,ofloxacin,oftal.cusi erythrocin eye,oftalar eye drops,oftalmolosa cusi atropin eye,oftalmolosa cusi cholmaphenicol eye,oftalmolosa cusi gentamicin eye,oftalmotrim eye drops,oftan timolol eye drops,oilatum emollient,okacin eye drops,olbetam,olfen,olfen dispersible,olfen-100 rectocaps,olfen-25 lactab,olfen-75,olfen-75 sr depotabs,olive oil bp,omace,omaceph,omacid chewable,omacid suspension,omacillin,omacillin drops,omacip,omacor soft,omafen,omcet,omedar,omeprex,omezyn,omiz,omnic,omnicef,omnicef suspension,omnipaque,omniscan iv,omol,omol drops,omol extra,omvil,one-alpha,one-alpha drops,one-alpha leo,opizole,opizole-b,oprazole,optichlor opthalmic suspension,opticin sterile opthalmic,opticrom eye drops,optidex t sterile opthalmic,optiflox opthalmic,optifresh opthalmic,optimen herculez,optimen naturmax,optimen testeromax,optimol opthalmic,optizolin opthalmic,optrex eye drops,optrex eye lotion,oral rehydration salt,oralite orange flavour,orasept mouth wash,orbenin,orcinol,orelox oral suspension,orgalutran solution for injection,orgametril,orofar gelsolets lozenges,orofar solution with lidocaine,orofar spray with lidocaine,orthocam,orthocam dt,oruvail cr,os-cal,os-cal-d,osipect,ospamox,ospamox f.c,ospamox oral suspension,ospamox powder for oral suspension,ospen granules for oral suspension,ospexin,ospexin granules for oral suspension,osteocare,otaci liquorice cough pastilles,otaci salvia pastilles,otocalm ear drops,otocol ear drops,otosporin ear drops,otrinol r.,otrivin menthol md nasal spray,otrivin metered dose spray,otrivin nasal drops,otrivin nasal drops(mds),otrivin nasal gel,ova-mit,ovitrelle,ovitrelle prefilled syringe,ovral,oxis turbuhaler,oxsoralen,oxsoralen lotion,oxsoralen ultra,oxytetracycline,pactolyn antitussive,pactolyn expectorant,palmer\'s skin success,panacare,panacetamol,panaderm,panadol actifast,panadol baby & infants suspension,panadol caplets,panadol cold & flu caplets,panadol cold & flu day,panadol cold & flu day/night 16&8,panadol extend,panadol extra,panadol night caplets,panadol sinus caplets,panadol soluble,panadol(children),panadol(infants),panadrex,panadrex day & night caplets,panadrex extra,panadrex suspension,panamild,pankreoflat coated,panoxyl,pansoral,panthenol,panthenol lotion,pantogar,pantozol,pantozol gastroresistant,para plus aerosol,para special lice shampoo,para special lice spray,paracetamol(pharco),paracetamol(pharmadex),paraffin oil bp,pariet,parlodel,paroxat,patanol opthalmic,paxetin,pectoral,pediaflor drops,pedialyte 45,pedialyte fruit flavour,pedizole suspension,peflacin,pegasys,pegasys prefilled syringe,peg-intron pen,peg-intron(vial+solvent ampoule),penadur g sodium,penadur la,pentasa,pentasa enema,pentasa prolonged release granules,pentasa sr,pentostam,pentrexyl,pentrexyl parenteral,pentrexyl pediatric drops,pepcidin,pepitran,peptazol,percedex iv,perderm,perdix,perfalgan infusion,pergonal,periactin,permax,permixon,persantin,persantin sc,pevaryl,pevaryl automiser,pevisone,pharmatex medicinal vaginal,pharmatex vaginal,pharmatex vaginal 6 unidose,phenergan,pheniram,phenobarbitone,phenytoin,phlebodia,phyllocontin continus,physioneal 35 glucose w/v,physioneal 40 glucose w/v,physiotens,phyto shape,piascledine,pile food,pilesar,pilex,pilka drops,pimafucort,pinetarsol,pinetarsol bath oil,pinko gripe water,pipril im/iv,plagril,plaquenil,plasbumin-20,plavix fc,plemazole,plendil,pliticans oral drops,pmol,pmol caplets,pmol drops,pneumorel,polarmine,polarmine expectorant,polarmine repetab,polaronil,polibar acb,polygynax vaginal,polysilane,polytar liquid,poly-vi-sol drops,ponstan forte,ponstan pediatric suspension,potassium chloride w/v 10ml,potassium permangnate,potassium permangnate bp,potencort,povidone-iodine,pred forte opthalmic(e/d),predenema,prefrin liquifilm opthalmic,pregnyl powder for injection,premarin,premarin vaginal,premelle,premelle cycle(14+14),premosan,premosan drops,prempack-c,preparation h,prepidil,presoline blue eye drops,preterax,primacine suspension,primalan,prime anti lice shampoo,primocef im/iv,primolut depot,primolut n,primoteston depot,primperan,primperan adult,prioderm,prioderm cream shampoo,prisolene eye & nasal drops,prisolene zinc eye drops,probanthine,procoralan,procto glyvenol,proctosedyl,procto-synalar,pro-dafalgan,prof,prof suspension,profasi,profenid,profinal,profinal fc,profinal pediatric suspension,profinal xp,progyluton(cyclo prognova),promax,prometin,propecia,propofol emulsion for inj.& inf.,proscar,proskin,prospan acute effervascent,prospan cough,prospan drops,prostamin icn,prostavone soft gelatine,prostigmin,prostin e2 vaginal,protelos granules for oral,proton,protopic,protozol,provera,proviron,provisc viscoelastic material,proxen,prozac pu 3105,prozac weekly delayed released,pulmex,pulmex baby,pulmex inhalation,pulmicort,pulmicort suspension for nebulisation,pulmonyl n,pulvo 47,pulvo 47 neomycine,puregon solution for injection,puregon solution for injection cartridge,puregon(1+1)amp,puregon(3+3)amp,puri nethol,pylorid,pyralvex oral paint,quadriderm,questran,quibron-t/sr,quinox,racestyptine,radian massage,rafree,ranacid,ranibos,ranid,ranitcare,ranitidine bp,ranopril,rantag,rantin,ranzin,rapamune,rapid rash relief,rapidus,raptiva,razimol chewable,rebif solution for injection,recocef,recormon,recormon multidose(1+1),recormon prefilled syringe,red kooga ginko biloba & ginseng,redoxon orange effervascent(vit.c),reductile,refresh liquigel lubricant eye drops,refresh plus cellufresh lubricant eye drops,refresh tears lubricant eye drops,regaine topical,rehidrat,rehyran-n,relamex,relaxon,relenza for oral inhalation(20blst/5rd),relestat eye drops,relifex,relpax,remen,remeron,remeron sol,reminyl,reminyl oral,remox,renagel,renalka,renitec,renitec iv,reosto,reparil dragees,reparil n,requip,resolve plus 1,resolve thrush +7 applicators,resolve tinea,resonium-a,restamine,restasis opthalmic emulsion,restropinal pediatric drops,resyl,retacnyl,retarpen mega,retin-a,retrovir,revanin,revanin suspension,revanin suspension ds,reyataz,rheumarene,rheumarub,rhinaris pediatric saline,rhinathiol,rhinathiol for adults,rhinathiol for infants,rhinathiol promethzine,rhinex nasal drops,rhinex nasal drops(drops),rhinocap,rhinoclenil nasal spray,rhinocort aq.nasal spray,rhinocort aq.nasal spray 120d,rhinofed,rhinofed expectorant,rhinopront,rhinostop oral drops,rhophylac solution for injection,riabal,riabal compound,riachol eye drops,rialac liquid,rianest oral suspension,riaphan,riavate skin,riaxine,ribomunyl,ribomunyl granules for oral suspension,rifadine,rifinah,risek,risek powder for infusion iv,risperdal consta im,risperdal fc,risperdal oral,rivo-micro,rivotril,rivotril drops,roaccutane,robaxin,robitussin,robitussin pe,rocephin im,rocephin iv,rodogyl,rofenac,rofenac sr,rofenac-d,roferan-a liquid,roferon-a,roferon-a cartridge,roferon-a liquid,roferon-a prefilled,rohypnol,roletra,r-omez,rotarix vaccine,rothacin,rovamycin,rovamycin fc,rowachol,rowachol drops,rowarolan,rowatanal,rowatinex,rowatinex drops,rowaxiprin,roxamed,roxcef im vials,roxcef im/iv,roxcef iv vials,roxil,roxil suspension,roxonin,royal ginseng soft gel(herbal),royal ginseng soft jelly(herbal),royal vit g,rozex,rubicalm,rulid coated,rumafen,ruta vit c,ruxid,rynacrom nasal spray,rytmonorm,sabril,saizen,salamol cfc free inhaler,salazopyrin,salazopyrin en dragees,salbet,salbuvent inhaler,salinal chewable,salinal drops,salipax,salivex-l paint,salonpas,salurin,sandimmun neoral,sandoglobulin i.v,sandostatin,sapofen,sapofen junior suspension,sapofen plus,sarf,saridon,scalpine suspension,scandonest plain,scopinal,sea cucumber plus(herbal),seacal,sebifin,sebivo,sedalac,sedergine effervescent,sediproct,sedofan,sedofan d.m,sekisan oral suspension,selsun suspension,semprex,senokot,septilin(herbal),septrin,septrin double strength,septrin infusion,septrin pediatric suspension,serdolect,seretide diskus inhaler,seretide evohaler,serevent diskus inhaler,serevent evohaler,serevent inhaler,serevent rotadisk,serlift,sermion dragees,serophene,seroquel,seroquel(peach),seroquel(white),seroquel(yellow),seroxat,seroxat cr,serzone,sevoflurane (general anesthetic),sevoflurane inh.anesthetic liquid,sexergine,sibelium,sicorten,sicorten plus,sifrol,sigmasporin micro-oral,silvadiazin,simadax con. for inf.,simeco suspension,simepar,simvacor,simvagen,simvahexal,simvaten,sinecod,sinecod drops,sinemet,sinemet cr,singulair,singulair paediatric,singulair paediatric chewable,singulair paediatric granules,sinofree,sinuc (herbal),sirdalud,skilax drops,skin-des coloured skin antiseptic,skin-des colourless skin antiseptic,skinoren,slimming and lexative tea no 13,slow-k,smooderm,snafi,sodium bicarbonate,sodium chloride,soflax,sofradex eye,sofradex eye/ear drops,soframycin eye,soframycin skin,solaquin forte,solcogyn,solcoseryl,solcoseryl dental adhesive paste,solcoseryl gel,solian,solpadeine,solu.cortef mix.o-vials,solu.medrol,solu.medrol mix.o-vials,solubacter,somatostatin,sonata hard,sonidar inhaler,soolan,soothex (herbal),spasmo-canulase bitabs,spasmocibalgin,spasmocin,spasmo-lyt sc,spasmomen,spasmonal,spasmo-urgenin dragees,speman (herbal),spersacet c eye drops,spersacet eye drops,spersadex compositum eye drops,spersadex eye drops,spersadexoline eye drops,spersallerg eye drops,spersanicol eye,spersanicol eye drops,spiriva inh.powder(+sprtr),sporanox,sporidex,sprycel,stablon,stalazine,stalazine spansule,stalevo,stamina (herbal),standacillin,staril,starlix,statrol opthalmic,sterile dopamine concentrate,stesolid,stesolid rectal tubes,stiemycin topical,stiprox shampoo,stocrin,straterra,strepsils extra blackcurrant lozenges,strepsils plus lozenges,stress & endurance frm with k.ginseng,stress fc,stress gt (herbal),stress with zinc fc,structum,stugeron,stugeron forte,sudafed,sudafed expectorant,suldex,super wate-on emulsion,supplin,supplin infusion,supradyn,supradyn dragees,supradyn effervascent,supraproct-s,supraviran,supraviran iv infusion,suprax,suprax suspension,supraxime,supraxime suspension,suprazole,suprazole pediatric suspension,suprefact nasal spray,suprefact solution for injection,surbex-t,surgam,surgical spirit,surgical spirit bp,surgical spirit bpc,surmontil,sustanon oily,sutent,symbicort th inh.p,symbicort turbuhaler,synacthen depot,synagis,synalar,synalar-n,syntocinon,syntometrine,tabiclor,tabiclor mr,tabiclor oral suspension,tabiclor suspension,tabiflex,tabiflox cool emulsion,tabocin,tagamet,takepron,talcid chew.,tambocor,tamiflu,tamiflu oral suspension,tamophar,tamoxifen ebewe,tantum verde mouth wash,tarceva,targocid,tarivid fc,tarka modified release,tartar control listerine antiseptic mw,tavanic,tavanic fc,tavanic iv infusion,tavegyl,tavegyl ampoules,taxol for injection concentrate,tazocin i.v,tears naturale,tears naturale forte lubricant eye drops,tears naturale free lubricant eye drops,tears naturale ii lubricant eye drops,tegretol,tegretol cr,tekozol,telfast,temodal,tempra drops(egypt),tempra drops(greece),tempra drops(usa),tenol,tenolol,tenoret fc,tenoretic,tenormin,tensotin,tentex forte (herbal),tentex royal (herbal),tenuate dospan,tetanus vaccine,tetracyclin,tetracyclin eye,tetracyclin skin,teveten,teveten plus,theophar sr,theopid,thera tears lubricant eye drops,theragran h,theragran m,theraprin,theraprin forte,theraprin suspension,thiavit,thirty plus (herbal),thymazyed b.p (herbal),thyroxine b.p,tiapridal,tiapridal iv/im,ticlid,ticopar,tidilor,tienam im,tienam iv,tiger balm,tiger balm soft,tiger balm white,tiger liniment,tiger muscle rub,tigra pill (herbal),tilade mint aerosol,tilcotil,tilcotil roche,tildiem,timo comod eye drops,timoptol opthalmic,timoptol xe opthalmic,tinaderm,tinasolve (herbal),tincture iodine,tincture of iodine bp,tirotax,tirotax iv,tobradex opthalmic,tobradex opthalmic suspension,tobrex eye,tobrex opthalmic,toclase opthalmic,tofranil,togamycin i.m,tolinase,topamax,topicale anaesth.cherry flavor,topicale anaesth.pinacolada flavor,topicale anaesth.raspberry flavor,topicale anaesth.straberry flavor,toplexil,topsym,topsym polyvalent,tot hema drinkable ampoules,trachisan forte lozenges,trachisan lozenges,trachisan soar throat gargle,tramadon,tramal,tramal drops,tramal rapid,tramal retard,tramal solution for injection,tramundin retard,tranexen,transilane oral,traumaplant (herbal),trautil conc. solution for infusion,travacort,travasol,travatan opthalmic,travogen,trazolan,treflucan,trental dragees,tres-orix forte,tres-orix forte oral,tretin,triactin,triaxone im,triaxone im/iv,triaxone iv,tri-b i.m,trihemic,trileptal,trileptal divisible,trileptal oral,trim fast hoodia (herbal),trimol,trimol ds,trinordiol 21,triobe,tripofed,tripofed dm,tripofed expectorant,trisequens,trivastal retard,tri-vi-sol drops,trivit,trivitacid,tropex ear drops,trusopt opthalmic,tryptizol,tuscalman,tuscalman a,tuscalman b,twinrix adult vaccine prefilled,tygacil,tykerb,tylenol,tylenol arthritis pain extn.r.caplets,tylenol child.suspension cherry flav.,tylenol child.suspension grape flav.,tylenol extra strength caplets,tylenol forte,tylenol infants cinc.drops,tyotocin ear drops,typherix vaccine prefilled,tyrosur,ubistesin injection,ultra carbon,ultra meladinine paint,ultra-cortenol eye,ultra-cortenol eye drops,ultramox,ultramox forte,ultramox suspension,unicap m,unidox,uni-dur sr,uniphyllin continus,upsa-c effervascent,ural effervascent granules,uralyt-u granules,urisept,urispas,uriton (herbal),uro vaxom,uroctal,uro-pos (herbal),uroxin,ursofalk,uvamin retard,v-2 plus,vagifem vaginal,vagoclyss,vagomycin vaginal,vagyl,valcyte,valium,valtrex,vancoled,vancolon iv,vancomycin alpharma,vapour rub,varilix vaccine,vasogen,vasopril,vastarel,vastarel mr,vavo,vavo shampoo,vaxigrip vaccine,vectavir w/w,vecuronium bromide for injection,velcade,venoruton,venoruton forte,vental aerosol,ventol,ventolin,ventolin diskus powder for inh.,ventolin evohaler,ventolin inhaler,ventolin nebules,ventolin respirator,ventolin rotacaps,ventomax aerosol inhaler,vepesid,vercef,vercef suspension,vermin,vermin suspension,vermonil suspension,vermox,vermox suspension,vesanoid,vfend,vfend powder for soln.for infusion,vi dalin w/iron,viagra,viarex inhaler,vibocil microdosor,vibocil nasal,vibocil nasal drops,vibramycin,vi-caps,vicks vaporub,vi-daylin,vi-daylin iron,viforcit,vig rx,vigamox opthalmic,vigranon b,vikonon,vioform hydrocortisone,vioneurin 6,viracept,viracept oral,viramune,viramune oral suspension,viru merz,virustat,visacrom eye drops,viscoat sterile ocular visco.,viscodril expectorant,visipaque,visudyne powder for solution for infusion,vita-c chewable,vitacid c effervascent,vitacid calcium effervascent salt,vita-ferin c,vitafol,vita-gerin,vitamin a,vitamin a + d pediatric drops,vitamin a eye,vitamin c,vitarnin effervascent,vitaxicam,vitiron suscaps,vitroleant eye drops,vl 7511 humalog mix,volmax,voltaren,voltaren child,voltaren dispersible,voltaren dolo,voltaren emulgel,voltaren retard,voltaren sr,voltfast powder for oral solution,voltic,vonal,votrex retard,warfin,wari procomil dragees,warimazol derm,warimazol vaginal,wariviron,wartec,water for injection bp,waxol ear drops,white petroleum jelly,winex,winter-guard w.echinacea zinc & vit.c,woodward\'s glucose d with calcium,woodward\'s gripe water(alcohol free),xalacom eye drops,xalatan eye drops,xanax,xanax c.,xanax xr,xatral,xatral xl,xeloda,xenical,xola opthalmic,xolair powder for solution for injection,xolamol opthalmic,xorim,xorox,xtrazen,xylo comod nasal spray,xylocaine,xylocaine 1% adrenaline,xylocaine aerosol,xylocaine spray,xylolin adult nasal spray,xylolin children nasal spray,xylo-mepha nasal spray,xylomet adult nasal drops,xylomet paediatric nasal drops,xylonor spray,xyloproct,xyzal,yasmine,yentreve hard g.r,yohimate (herbal),yomesan,yun na (herbal),yutopar,zadaxin,zaditen,zaditen eye drops,zaditen sd unit eye drops,zafor,zaldiar,zantac,zantac effervascent,zeffix,zeldox hard gelatin,zelmac,zemplar,zenapax conc.solution for infusion,zentel,zentel suspension,zenusin depocap,zenusin solucaps,zenusin sr cardotab,zerit,zertazine,zestoretic,zestril,zeta,zeta cort,zetop,zetron,zetron oral suspension,ziaab (herbal),zidime im/iv,zidime iv,zimax,zimax oral suspension,zinacef,zinc,zincast baby,zincfrin opthalmic,zineryt lotion,zinnat,zinnat suspension,zinoximor,zithromax,zithromax iv,zithromax oral suspension,zithromax sd for oral suspension,zithrox,zocor,zofran,zofran melt,zoladex,zoloft,zometa conc.infusion,zometa powder for infusion,zomig,zomig rapimelt,zora c lozenges,zordyl mouth wash,zovirax,zovirax opthalmic,zovirax pump,zovirax suspension,zyban sr,zyloric,zymar opthalmic,zymogen,zynovate,zyprexa,zyprexa velotab,zyrtec,zyrtec oral,zyrtec oral drops











Done By:

Pharmacist Ihssan Samir Al-Farran















          Vitamins are organic molecules that mainly function as co-factors associated with enzyme catalysts for reactions within the body. Vitamin c (ascorbic acid) is a water soluble vitamin that is necessary for normal growth and development. Human beings require dietary vitamin c for the prevention of scurvy. Vitamin c is found mostly in fruits and vegetables. It is also available on the market as an over the counter preparations or as for prescription use only. Beside all the important functions of vitamin c, the participation in collagen synthesis seems to be the most important one. Clinically, it is used to prevent and alleviate the symptoms of scurvy and to acidify the urine. The recommended dietary intake for vitamin c is set to be 75mg/day for women and 90mg/day for men with an additional 35mg/day for those who smoke. Vitamin c deficiency can lead to serious problems like scurvy which is considered to be the worst. There is a long standing controversy regarding the effectiveness of megavitamin therapy to treat or prevent disease, and there is much disagreement as to the potential benefits .The proponents of vitamin c therapy claim that mega doses of the vitamin have various benefits and uses, while others claim that there is no point in consuming such large doses. Each side has presented many arguments in support of their position. More over, there have been many different arguments about using vitamin c as a nutritional supplement to maintain general health.  

           In conclusion, Vitamin c is a very essential and important vitamin that should be contained in our diets, and it has many roles and uses.   










           With increased public nutritional awareness, there has been a growing popular trend to consume high doses of vitamins and minerals and other biomolecules in the belief that this increases health and reduces risk of disease. This project will discuss some of the major issues and views regarding the intake of very high doses of vitamin c.

The project will give a brief description of the vitamin and the various formulations in which it is available. It will describe the mechanism of action and cellular function of the vitamin. The clinical and nutritional uses of vitamin c as well as the recommended dietary intake will be discussed. The effect of vitamin c deficiency will also be described. Moreover, there will be an evaluation of the evidence and the claims for the effectiveness of megavitamin therapy in the treatment or prevention of diseases. Finally, the arguments for using vitamin c as a nutritional supplement to maintain general health will be evaluated.














(1) Description of the vitamin and the available formulations :

The word vitamin is derived from the combination of words: vital amine. Vitamins are organic molecules that mainly function as co-factors associated with enzyme catalysts for reactions within the body. (1). Vitamin c, (ascorbic acid), is a water soluble vitamin that is necessary for normal growth and development.(2, 3). It is a six-carbon ketolactone structurally related to glucose and other hexoses. It is reversibly oxidized in the body to dehydroascorbic acid; which possesses the full activity ascribed to vitamin c. (4).


Human and other primates as well as guinea pigs and some bats are unable to synthesize ascorbic acid and require dietary vitamin c for the prevention of scurvy. Animals that do not require supplementation synthesize ascorbic acid from glucose. Humans lack the hepatic enzyme that is required for ascorbic acid synthesis from glucose. (4).

Vitamin c is found mostly in fruits and vegetables, where the highest concentrations are in fresh, raw foods, while whole grains, seeds or beans contain very little vitamin c, except when they are sprouted, which raises the ascorbic acid content. (See appendix 1 for details (5)). Similarly, animal foods contain almost no vitamin c, although raw fish has enough to prevent deficiency symptoms. Cooking can destroy much of the vitamin c content in food, and it is easily oxidized in air and sensitive to light. Being mostly contained in the watery part of fruits and vegetables, vitamin c is easily lost during cooking in water, so the steam cooking of vegetables minimizes its loss. (6).               Vitamin c is available in the following forms and strengths for over the counter (OTC) use:

* Capsules: 100 mg, 250 mg, 500 mg, 1000 mg.

* Capsules, Extended Release: 500 mg, 1000 mg.

* Cream: 10% w/v.

* Chewable Tablets: 60 mg, 100 mg, 200 mg, 250 mg, 500 mg, 1000 mg.

* Liquid: 100 mg/ ml, 500 mg/ 5ml.

* Lozenges: 25 mg.

* Syrup: 500 mg/ 5 ml.

* Tablets: 100 mg, 250 mg, 500 mg, 1000 mg.

* Tablets, Extended Release: 500 mg, 1000 mg, 1500 mg, 2000 mg. (7).

It is also available for prescription (Rx) use by:

* Injection: 222 mg/ ml, 250 mg/ ml, 500 mg/ ml.

The various forms of vitamin c available in the market are due largely to marketing and commercial purposes and reflect the need to cater for a wide range of individual preferences for the route of intake. Additional benefits of the different formulations of vitamin c will be highlighted later in the discussion on supplementation.

(See appendix 2 for vitamin c formulations (8)).














(2) Mechanism of action and cellular function :


            Vitamin c functions as a cofactor in a number of hydroxylation and amidation reactions by transferring electrons to enzymes that provide reducing equivalents. So, it is required for the conversion of certain prolines and lysine residues in pro-collagen to hydroxyl proline and hydroxyl lysine in the course of collagen synthesis. Collagen is an important protein constituents of skin, scar tissues, tendons, ligaments, and blood vessels. Ascorbic acid promotes the activity of an amidating enzyme thought to be involved in the processing of certain peptide hormones such as oxytocin, anti diuretic hormone, and cholecystokinin. Vitamin c helps in the conversion of folic acid to folinic acid. It also promotes the intestinal absorption of iron by reducing non-heme ferric iron to the ferrous state. (4). More over, vitamin c is essential for the healing of wounds and for repair of cartilage, bones, and teeth. (2). It is also important because it helps in protecting the fat soluble vitamins A and E as well as fatty acids from oxidation. (1).

            At the tissue level, ascorbic acid is involved in the synthesis of collagen, proteoglycans, and other organic constituents of the intercellular matrix of several tissues as teeth, bones and capillary endothelium. In collagen synthesis it is required for the hydroxylation of proline to hydroxyl proline and hydroxylysine. There is evidence suggesting that ascorbic acid has a direct stimulatory action on collagen peptide synthesis.









(3) Clinical and nutritional uses and recommended dietary intake :


             Clinically, vitamin c is used to prevent and alleviate the symptoms of scurvy, and to acidify the urine. It also can be beneficial in the treatment of iron deficiency anemia.

            Scurvy is associated with a defect in collagen synthesis that is apparent in the failure of wounds to heal, defects in tooth formation, and rupture of capillaries. About100- 250 mg one to two times per day for at least two weeks can be given orally, intramuscularly (I.M), intravenously (I.V), or subcutaneously ( S.Q) for treatment of scurvy (9).

For urinary acidification, 4-12 g/ day in 3-4 divided doses is given orally, or by I.V.

            There is unlabelled/ investigational use of the vitamin in large doses of 1-3 g/ day to decrease the severity of cold symptoms. A twenty year study was recently completed involving 730 individuals who indicate a possible decreased risk of death by stroke when vitamin c at doses ≥ 45 mg/ day was administered. (9).

            Vitamin c is given orally as 5-200 mg/ day as a dietary supplement.(9).

            Recommended dietary allowance (RDA) is defined as the average daily dietary intake level that is sufficient to meet the nutrient requirement of nearly all healthy individuals in a group. (3). The best way to get the daily requirement of essential vitamins is to eat a balanced diet that contains a variety of foods from the food guide pyramid. (Appendix1 (5)). In the past, determining recommended daily intakes was not an accurate science. It was very difficult to identify the ideal intake for optimum health as individual life styles vary so greatly (10). Recently, based on the vitamin's role as an antioxidant and to avoid deficiency, the official recommended daily intake of vitamin c has been set as 75 mg/ day for women and 90 mg/ day for men. Individuals who smoke cigarettes are encouraged to consume an additional 35 mg/ day of the vitamin than non-smoking adults. This is due to the fact that smoking depletes vitamin c levels in the body and is a catalyst for biological processes which damage the cells. (1).

Although high intakes of the vitamin are generally well tolerated, an upper level was recently set as 2 g/ day based on gastrointestinal upset that sometimes accompanies excessive dosages (11, 12).

            The recommended daily intakes (RDI) of dietary vitamin c according to the World Health Organization (WHO) are: (9)


            * Neonates 1-6 months: 30 mg.

            * Infants 6-12 months: 35 mg.

            * Children 1-3 years: 40 mg.

            * Children 4- 10 years: 45 mg.

            * Children 11-14 years: 50 mg.

            * Adolescent girls 15-18 years: 65 mg.

            * Adolescent boys 15- 18 years: 75 mg.


            * Men over 18 years: 90 mg.

            * Women over 18 years: 75 mg.

            * Breastfeeding women: 1st 6 months: 95 mg.

            * Breastfeeding women: 2nd 6 months: 90 mg.

            * Smokers: need additional 35 mg/ day.









4- Effect of vitamin c deficiency:


            Vitamin c deficiency can lead to dry and splitting hair, gingivitis and bleeding gums, rough, dry, scaly skin, decreased wound healing rate, easy bruising, nose bleeds, weakened enamel of the teeth, swollen and painful joints, anemia, decreased ability to ward off infection, and possibly weight gain due to slowed metabolic rate and energy consumption.

In its severe form, vitamin c deficiency leads to scurvy, which is mainly found in  older malnourished adults or those with very restrictive diets lacking fresh fruit, vegetables, etc.(2).

            Since vitamin c plays a major role in the synthesis of collagen, a deficiency will cause breakdown of the collagen protein needed for connective tissue, bones and dentin; (the major portion of the teeth). Collagen is involved in cell adhesion, and is an essential part of the connective tissue. Whenever the body in injured, collagen is formed during the repair process to form a scar. A lack of collagen causes breakdown of capillaries leading to hemorrhage. The loss of collagen from capillaries leads to increased symptoms of scurvy. Deficiency generally leads to weakness and pain in the joints. Internal hemorrhage causes black and blue marks to appear on the skin. At the first visible signs of scurvy, raised red spots appear on the skin around the hair follicles of the legs, buttocks, arms and back. When the tiny capillaries of the hair follicle hemorrhage, the hair producing cells are deprived of the nourishment needed for the hairs to grow normally. Consequently, the skin becomes flecked with small lesions that begin to appear on the body after several months on a diet deficient in vitamin c. Gums hemorrhage and their tissue becomes weak and spongy. Dentin, which lies below the enamel and is part of the root of teeth, breaks down. Teeth loosen and eating becomes difficult and painful. (13).





5- Effectiveness of megavitamin therapy to treat or prevent disease :


            There is a long standing controversy regarding the effectiveness of megavitamin therapy to treat or prevent disease, and there is much disagreement as to the potential benefits. The proponents of vitamin c therapy claim that mega doses of the vitamin have various benefits and uses, while others claim that there is no point in consuming such large doses. Each side has presented many arguments in support of their position.

            The group claiming that mega doses are beneficial has proposed several uses and supports each with an explanation. Professor Frederick Robert Klenner, a clinician in the Pauling's Institution, belongs to this group. Based on his clinical experience, he said that ascorbic acid must be given for burns treatment in frequent intravenous injections. He claims to have used about 30- 100 g/ day continuously until healing takes place; 7-30 days, depending upon the degree of severity of the burn. These high doses of ascorbic acid are also claimed to remove the smoke poisoning found in many fire victims, especially children who are more susceptible to the effects of toxic gases.

            More over, he said that herpes simplex virus and adenovirus can be destroyed with high doses of ascorbic acid. He also claimed that many infections can be prevented by taking daily amounts of vitamin c by mouth of up to 1 g for each year of life up to age 10, and that after 10 years of age at least 10 g of the vitamin should be taken daily. Klenner believed that white blood cells are useless unless they have a high concentration of ascorbic acid, since it improves their phagocytotic ability and or destructive action against pathogens. Although herpes simplex infection usually shows itself as small lip sores and the adenovirus as mild cold, both can become killers through passage of the virus to the brain. (14).

Klenner also claimed that when taking ascorbic acid in sufficient amounts the intraocular pressure will be relieved in patients with glaucoma. Also when the vitamin is given by injection, (I.V, or I.M), it will destroy all viruses, and many can be destroyed by taking 25- 30 g daily by mouth. In addition, he claimed that he had cured diphtheria, hemolytic streptococcus and staphylococcus infections by giving vitamin c intravenously in doses ranging between 500- 700 mg/ kg body weight. He said that doses under 400 mg/ kg body weight can be given by a syringe using the sodium salt. This will produce thirst. Fluids taken just before or immediately after will eliminate this problem. He also said that doses above 400 mg/ kg body weight must be diluted to at least 1 g to 18 cc solution, using 5% dextrose in water, saline or Ringer's solution. His advice was to add 1 g calcium gluconate to these bottle injections to replace calcium ions pulled from the calcium- prothrombin complex. "There is no limit to the amount that can be administered intravenously when considering these precautions" said Klenner (14). One point to mention here is that Klenner didn't state clearly how often these amounts should be given.  

He also stated that vitamin c is a positive neutralizing agent in snake bite, spider bites, and inset sting. But the use of ascorbic acid in snake bites was limited to the High land moccasin; a member of the copperhead family. "Other poisonous snakes are more deadly but I can easily calculate from my experience what dose to employ" he said. In a 4 year old receiving a full strike from a mature High land moccasin, 12 g of vitamin c were required to protect him.

            ''Ascorbic acid can be life saving in shock'' said Klenner. He claimed that 12 g of the sodium salt given with a 50 cc syringe will reverse shock in minutes. Not only that, but also 10- 12 g in the preoperative solutions and 10 g in each postoperative bottle will eliminate surgical deaths and will reduce hospital stay by 50%. The same can be said for obstetrical cases. He found that obstetrical cases needed 4 g each day in the 1st trimester, 6 g in the 2nd trimester, and 8- 10 g in the 3rd trimester (14).

            "Vitamin c is the safest and the most valuable substance available to the physician". Many heartaches and headaches can be avoided with its proper use according to Klenner. (14).

            Patrick Holford is another doctor from the same institution (Vitamin C Foundation), supporting the megavitamin theory. Based on his clinical experience (15), he believed that the immune system depends on having healthy immune cells and antibodies, and vitamin c is essential for both. "Ascorbic acid is also needed for interferon and prostaglandin production and is important for the function of lymphocytes and leukocytes", he said. Moreover, he supported the claims of the Nobel laureate Linus Pauling, in that 10g /day of vitamin c doubles the life expectancy of cancer patients, and in some cases effects a complete cure. He also said that its effect is more vital in cardiovascular diseases. Holford claimed that "adequate" intake of vitamin c at levels up to 10 g per day improves almost all cardiovascular markers. Furthermore, he claimed that vitamin c increases resistance to stress, lessens allergic reactions, helps arthritic conditions, slows down the aging process and improves energy production.

            Robert Cathcart also belongs to the group supporting megavitamin c intake (again from the same Foundation). He believed that the ideal intake of the vitamin for any individual is the highest level he can tolerate without loose bowels. On the basis of his experience with 11,000 patients over 14 years, he said this level may be 10- 15 g/day in a healthy person, 30- 60 g/day in a person with a cold and over 199 g/ day in a person with serious infectious disease. He said that during an infectious illness, maintaining 3 g or more of vitamin c levels in the blood by frequent intakes will give the best clinical results. (14).

            At the most recent meeting of the American College for Advancement in Medicine, Hugh Riodran, of the Center for the Improvement of Human Health Functioning International in Wichita, Kansas, gave an extremely provocative presentation on the use of intravenous vitamin c as a treatment for cancer and other diseases. He said that high blood concentrations of vitamin c can kill cancer cells and microbes, but are non-toxic to healthy cells. During the past 28 years, Dr. Riordan has used I.V vitamin c (15- 100g) to treat bacterial and viral infections, relieve toxic reactions to insect bites, and improve the quality of life for people with cancer ( in some cases entirely eliminating their tumors). (16)

            Dr. Julian Whitaker, author of Health and Healing supports the claims of Riordan, Cathcart and Klenner. Moreover, he says that at the Whitaker Wellness Institute, they used I.V vitamin c (up to 75 g) for over 20 years, with no sign of toxicity. What's more, is that I.V vitamin c therapy can be administered at home, and Riordan himself sends many of his patients home, and a nurse comes by simply to mix the solution and hook up the I.V. (16)

            In addition to these very controversial claims, recent more "controversial" research has indicated that the intake of antioxidants like vitamin c can prevent or counteract cell damage due to aging, exposure to antioxidants and cancer. However, it has yet to be convincingly demonstrated that vitamin C's effectiveness at the cell level translates to the prevention of or cure of chronic diseases.  

High doses of vitamin c taken at the beginning of a cold have been shown only in some cases to reduce the severity of the symptoms to a modest degree, due to a mild antihistaminic effect. Vitamin c has not been commonly shown to prevent the common cold as Pauling had claimed.          Similar high doses of vitamin c used for the treatment of cancer patients (according to Pauling's claims) have not been found to be beneficial. For example, research done at the Mayo Clinic in a double blind trial (neither the doctors nor the patients knew who was given the high doses of vitamin c) showed that those who received the vitamin in the large dosage actually did worse than those who received a placebo (1). Dr. Stephen Barrett presented a paper on November 7, 1999 explaining the details of the Mayo Clinic studies and the mistakes in Pauling's own studies and subsequent claims (17). He said that Pauling and Ewan Cameron had claimed that patients treated with high doses of vitamin c had survived three to four times longer than similar cancer patients who did not receive vitamin c supplements at large doses.

Stephen Barett, and the Mayo Clinic studies, disagrees with the claims of Pauling and Cameron. He reasoned that their study was not a clinical trial in which patients were compared to carefully matched patients chosen at random and followed using a standardized protocol. Instead, he says, Pauling and Cameron attempted to reconstruct what happened to the control group by examining their medical records. Most cancer specialists and journal editors are extremely reluctant to accept this type of study for evaluating the validity of contemporary cancer therapy, primarily because bias may occur in selecting controls.

In 1978, the Mayo Clinic embarked on a prospective, controlled double-blind study designed to test Pauling and Cameron's claims. The results are noteworthy. About 25% of patients in both groups showed some improvement in appetite, 42% on placebo alone experienced enhancement of their level of activity. About 40% experienced mild nausea and vomiting. There were no survival differences between patients receiving vitamin c and those receiving the placebo. Overall, the study showed no benefit from high dose vitamin c.

In the second study of the Mayo Clinic, there was also no apparent benefit from treatment with high dose vitamin c. Following publication of the results obtained from these two studies, some commentators suggested that the study patients might not have been representative of cancer patients as a whole, that perhaps there was a subtle selection or referral bias that may have skewed the results. So a third prospective, randomized, stratified study was conducted under the auspices of the North Central Cancer Treatment Group, an international, multi-institutional, collaborative oncology group. Based primarily at the Division of Oncology at the Mayo Clinic, the group also had input from community-based cancer specialists in the Upper Midwest, Louisiana, Montana, Pennsylvania, and Saskatchewan, Canada. The study found that the vitamin c group survived no longer than the placebo group. One point to mention is that the data showed something that was intriguing. At two weeks after the onset of therapy, some patients receiving vitamin c experienced substantial improvement in appetite, strength, and pain relief. However, these advantages quickly dissipated so that by 4-6 weeks, no meaningful advantage from vitamin c remained.

The researchers concluded that vitamin c had provided transient symptomatic improvement in appetite and strength for a small proportion of treated patients. However, survival was not enhanced by vitamin c. To summarize, three prospectively randomized, placebo-controlled studies involving 367 patients documented no consistent benefit from vitamin c among cancer patients with advanced disease. Moreover, high doses of vitamin c can have significant adverse effects. High oral doses can cause diarrhea, while high intravenous dosage has been reported to cause kidney failure due to clogging of the kidney tubules by oxalate crystals. (17).

6- Arguments about vitamin c supplementation to maintain general health:


     Why do some people maintain good health without supplementation?

If one analyzes people living to a ripe old age in reasonable health without the help of any supplements, one finds that they had many things in their favor. What happens is that a person starts his life healthy with no gene mutations or defects, and then he tends to lack some factors due to an accident or a disease. These factors are necessary to maintain the body chemical balance which in part is responsible for general health. So, as a result his life quality will be affected and he may require compensation through extra nutritional support or drug intervention. A centenarian who never touched a supplement in his life has likely maintained such a balance as a result of little "pro-oxidant" activity, which necessitated little "antioxidant" activity.

On the other hand, let's assume a very healthy individual with longevity odds in his favor ends up with a serious injury early in his life. The imbalance introduced to his previously sound chemistry by drug treatments or organ damage will have him for the rest of his life search for compensatory factors to improve the quality of life. Unlike before his injury, he is now in the same situation as those born less fortunate health-wise, and may now have to become more reliant on better nutrition and/or additional supplementation. So the reason for supplementation and the amounts needed change with individual circumstances. Even without previous injury, there are enough genetic variations or environmentally introduced factors that are responsible for some people to benefit from ingesting several grams of ascorbic acid per day, in contrast to those requiring no additional intake of supplements. The most common reason is that they likely exhibit excessive levels of vitamin c antagonists, or factors that inhibit vitamin c activity. Of those, the most common one is copper, but there are others, such as excessive levels or intake of zinc, calcium, magnesium, or very low levels of nickel, which supports vitamin c. People with very high copper levels rarely reach optimum levels of vitamin c unless they take in excess of 1 g/ day or unless they lower copper levels by other means. (6)

Ascorbic acid lowers zinc directly and indirectly by supporting iron uptake. So while higher intake of vitamin c would likely be beneficial for those suffering from some forms of anemia, leukemia, left-sided ovarian cysts, or from prostatitis, it could compromise patients with benign prostatic hypertrophy, and certain liver conditions.

Larger amounts of vitamin c lower manganese levels and this aids greater insulin production in those capable of producing insulin, which may be beneficial in type two diabetics, but it would worsen those with hypoglycemic tendencies. By lowering manganese, vitamin c affects glycogen stores in the liver, decreasing the liver's ability to store larger amounts. Manganese influences the liver's ability to break down estrogen, so too much vitamin c can affect the length of the menstrual cycle and worsen some types of post menopausal syndrome.

Calcium metabolism is very much affected by vitamin c intake. For patients who suffer from calcium overload, larger amounts of vitamin c are an effective part of the daily regimen to keep calcium soluble and prevent it from calcifying soft tissues. Appropriate (in the RDA range) amounts of vitamin c increases bioavailability of calcium levels, while very high intake of ascorbic acid (>5 g) will eventually put extra demands on calcium stores (bone) to make up calcium loss. This problem can be overcome using buffered vitamin c, such as calcium ascorbate or sodium ascorbate. More over, supplementing small amounts of nickel will reduce vitamin c requirements considerably, hence, the effects of the large amounts of vitamin c on the body (such as lowering calcium) will be reduced, and also it will reduce the need for the ascorbate form of the vitamin which might not be available in some areas around the world. In addition, vitamin E and vitamin C exhibit synergistic antioxidant activity, so when increasing the amounts of one also increases the requirements for the other (6).

            More over, when discussing vitamin c supplementation, not all the news is positive. Commonly seen as a skin nutrient, some evidence indicates that vitamin c may in fact be the opposite when taken in excess, although the literature is contradictory on this point. So, unfortunately, many people are taking vitamin c in excess thinking that they are protecting their skin from harmful radiations. But the truth is that they are wasting a lot of their money because there is still no hard evidence that supports this use. (18).     

So, Should one supplement with vitamin c or not?

The difference between healthy people who supplement vitamin c and other basic nutrients, and healthy ones who don't can perhaps be compared to younger versus older people facing the same medical condition. Younger people tend to handle medical situations better, or recover faster than older ones. Supplementing may perhaps be compared to effectively "lowering" biological age.   


The above graph illustrates what percentage of the population will enjoy optimal benefits from vitamin c supplementation- not including the dietary sources of the vitamin. These amounts are based on average, cellular requirements of vitamin c, which go beyond the recommended dietary allowance (RDA/RDI). Instead, they consider the synergistic and antagonistic effect of all other nutrients that interact with vitamin c as well, to encompass a much wider scope of disease prevention. However, even optimal requirements tend to fluctuate under specific medical circumstances and may need to be adjusted. (6).

            In addition, when talking about vitamin c supplementation, we must not forget that there are a large number of vitamin c formulations on the market. The label by law should accurately represent the contents. However, we should not necessarily take this for granted. It is important to read the label carefully.   

A watchdog group (19) in the U.S has done recent tests and studies of 26 brands of vitamin c supplements. It found that 15% of them did not contain as much vitamin c as was listed on the label. Some of the products that flunked the test had more than 90% of the listed amount. What's more is that industry experts say that FDA has authority, but not the resources, to test the accuracy of every such product sold today in the U.S.A. Not only that, but also the standards set by the FDA and the United States Pharmacopoeia vary on how closely the actual product amounts must match the amount given on labels. Neither organization tests vitamin c products regularly (19). Their efforts are devoted to run refutation of drugs and 'food supplements' or nutraceuticals slip easily through their net. 

The consensus of opinion seems to be that vitamin c is an important part of a healthy diet. It is not a miracle drug, and may cause harm if taken in extreme excess (more than 5g). A well- balanced, varied diet will ensure that you receive more than enough vitamin c to prevent scurvy and other potential health problems (1) due to vitamin c deficiency.


            In conclusion, Vitamin c is a very essential and important vitamin that should be contained in our diets, and it has many roles and uses. There was and still is a big controversy among scientists and doctors about this vitamin and its clinical uses. Moreover, a lot of people consume large amounts of this vitamin in the belief that this increases health and reduces risk of disease, but to date there is still no hard evidence to support all of the claims that have been made about vitamin c. People should be better advised to pay more attention to their diets and try not to be fooled or tricked by commercial companies that try to sell their products with claims that actually have very little scientifically proven basis.

Indeed it seems that most of the 'evidence' for the use of vitamin c megadose therapy comes from a single source, the Linus Pauling Foundation.       








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8 – Anon. Vitamin C. "no date.". Retrieved April 1st, 2005, from the World Wide Web:


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16 – Whitaker J. (2003). The Virtues of Vitamin C. Health & Healing 13 (7). Retrieved form the World Wide Web:


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19 - Leslie M. Vitamin C: How Much Do You Really Need? (2000). Web MD Feature. Retrieved April 1st, 2005, from the World Wide Web:
























Appendix1: (5)

Good Sources of Vitamin C


Serving Size

Milligrams Vitamin C

% AI for men

% AI for women


1 medium




Red Bell Pepper

1/2 cup





1 medium




Orange juice, from frozen concentrate

3/4 cup